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—SiO 2 /high-κ dielectric stack is a candidate for replacing the conventional SiO 2-based dielectric stacks for future Flash memory cells. Electron traps in the high-κ layer can limit the memory retention via the trap-assisted tunneling, and there is a pressing need for their characterization. A new two-pulse C–V measurement technique is developed in this(More)
Article history: Available online xxxx a b s t r a c t Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) has become an important reliability concern for nano-scaled complementary metal oxide (CMOS) devices. This paper presents the effect of NBTI for a 45 nm advanced-process high-k dielectric with metal gate PMOS transistor. The device had incorporated(More)
High density of electron trapping in high-κ gate dielectrics remains a major concern for flash memory cells. In this work, by using the ultrafast I-V measurements, it is demonstrated that a significant portion of the Program/Erase windows are actually contributed by electrons trapped initially in the high-κ dielectric during program/erase and(More)
Interface state density is a key property for MOS devices in process development, material selection, and device simulation. Early attentions were focused on interface states within the bandgap of silicon. The interface states beyond bandgap (SBB) are often implicitly assumed to be negligible, but this is not experimentally verified. The existing techniques(More)
High-&#x03BA; dielectric stacks have been used to replace the conventional SiO<sub>2</sub>-based dielectric stacks in Flash memory cells in the 20 nm technology generation. The electron trap density in high-&#x03BA; layers is orders of magnitude higher than that in SiO<sub>2</sub>, which introduces fast transient trapping/detrapping and affects the(More)
In the case of the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP), the existence of periodic orbits is strictly proved for the first- and third-order time-dependent approximate system in the inertial frame. Moreover, the expression of periodic orbits for the first-order nonautonomous system of CR3BP is presented analytically, which makes a difference for(More)