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Group II introns have attracted considerable attention as ribozymes, mobile genetic elements and possible progenitors of nuclear spliceosomal introns. Major advances in understanding their catalytic structure and dispersal strategies have recently come from several model mitochondrial and bacterial self-splicing introns. In Nature, this family of introns(More)
The transcription factor NF-kappaB is a regulator of cell death or survival. To investigate the role of NF-kappaB in neuronal cell death, we studied its activation in a rodent model of stroke. In the ischemic hemisphere, NF-kappaB was activated, as determined by increased expression of an NF-kappaB-driven reporter transgene, nuclear translocation of(More)
Human T-cell leukaemia virus 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus aetiologically associated with adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL), tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) and possibly multiple sclerosis (MS) in humans. Three founder lines of transgenic mice containing the HTLV-1 tax gene under the control of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) have previously been shown to(More)
Programmed cell death plays an important role in the neuronal degeneration after cerebral ischemia, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we examined, in vivo and in vitro, whether ischemia-induced neuronal death involves death-inducing ligand/receptor systems such as CD95 and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand(More)
Powdery mildews are among the most common plant diseases, infecting over 650 monocot and over 9000 dicot species. Analysis in domesticated barley and wild Arabidopsis has begun to unravel the genetic and molecular frameworks underlying the mechanisms of susceptibility and resistance to these biotrophic fungal pathogens. This has revealed multiple pathways(More)
Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the Western world. The mechanisms of brain damage in the affected areas are largely unknown. Hence, rational treatment strategies are limited. Previous experimental evidence suggested that cerebral lesions were less prominent in CD95 (APO-1/Fas)-deficient (lpr) than in wild-type mice. Additional results(More)
Transgenic mice bearing the HIV tat gene develop dermal lesions resembling a common malignant tumor in AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). To evaluate the permeability characteristics of these lesions and the therapeutic potential of drug-carrying liposomes, we have studied the localization of sterically stabilized liposomes, which show long circulation time in(More)
Epidemiologic studies have linked infection by the human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) with the development of adult T-cell leukemia. The low penetrance of the virus and the long latency for disease manifestation are factors that obscure the role of HTLV-I infection in oncogenesis. We have used an in vitro transformation assay system to determine(More)