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1. Delay-tuned combination-sensitive neurons (FM-FM neurons) have been discovered in the dorsal and medial divisions of the medial geniculate body (MGB) of the mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii). In this paper we present evidence for a thalamic origin for FM-FM neurons. Our examination of the response properties of FM-FM neurons indicates that the neural(More)
1. Orientation sounds (pulses) emitted by the mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii) consist of up to four harmonics (H1-4); each harmonic contains a constant frequency (CF) component and a terminal frequency modulated (FM) component, so that there are eight components in total (CF1-4 and FM1-4). By referring the echo from a target to the emitted pulse, the(More)
Peripheral auditory neurons are tuned to single frequencies of sound. In the central auditory system, excitatory (or facilitatory) and inhibitory neural interactions take place at multiple levels and produce neurons with sharp level-tolerant frequency-tuning curves, neurons tuned to parameters other than frequency, cochleotopic (frequency) maps, which are(More)
The extent of the binocular cortical field in albino mice, as revealed by recording from single cells, was almost normal; although the input from the ipsilateral eye was weaker than normal, most cells were driven from both eyes. By backfilling retinal ganglion cells from one optic tract with horseradish peroxidase we examined the origins of the retinofugal(More)
This report describes the binaural basis of the auditory space map in the optic tectum of the barn owl (Tyto alba). Single units were recorded extracellularly in ketamine-anesthetized birds. Unit tuning for interaural differences in timing and intensity of wideband noise was measured using digitally synthesized sound presented through earphones. Spatial(More)
The distribution of ganglion cells in the mouse retina was studied with the use of Nissl criteria for distinguishing cell types in the ganglion cell layer. Retrograde filling with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from the optic fiber tract helped to validate Nissl criteria and served to identify displaced ganglion cells. We estimated a total of 117,000(More)
1. This study demonstrates the influence of experience on the establishment and maintenance of the auditory map of space in the optic tectum of the barn owl. Auditory experience was altered either by preventing the structures of the external ears (the facial ruff and preaural flaps) from appearing in baby barn owls (baby ruff-cut owls) or by removing these(More)
Connections among functional areas in the mustached bat's auditory cortex were examined by placing anatomical tracers in physiologically defined locations. We identified at least two and probably three channels connecting the various areas. One channel is formed by interconnections among areas containing neurons sensitive to frequency-modulated components(More)
AILDD1 AC'1 The responses of neurons in the mustached bat's auditory cortex are specialized to extract particular information from biosonar signals. For this study, we mapped response properties across entire hemispheres in several animals. These experiments enabled us to construct a standard map that aided in determining the connections among the areas, as(More)