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The glyoxalase system is composed of two metalloenzymes, Glyoxalase I and Glyoxalase II. This system is important in the detoxification of methylglyoxal, among other roles. Detailed studies have determined that a number of bacterial Glyoxalase I enzymes are maximally activated by Ni(2+) and Co(2+) ions, but are inactive in the presence of Zn(2+). This is in(More)
The three-dimensional structure of the lytic transglycosylase from bacteriophage lambda, also known as bacteriophage lambda lysozyme, complexed to the hexasaccharide inhibitor, hexa-N-acetylchitohexaose, has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.6 A resolution. The unit cell contains two molecules of the lytic transglycosylase with two(More)
The increasing need for new antibiotics to overcome rapidly developing resistance mechanisms observed in clinical isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative eubacteria has placed critical emphasis on the search for new antibacterial enzyme targets and the structural and mechanistic investigation of such targets. Among these potential targets, the enzymes(More)
Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrA; EC ) reverses the inactivation of many proteins due to the oxidation of critical methionine residues by reducing methionine sulfoxide, Met(O), to methionine. MsrA activity is independent of bound metal and cofactors but does require reducing equivalents from either DTT or a thioredoxin-regenerating system. In an(More)
The metalloenzyme glyoxalase I (GlxI) converts the nonenzymatically produced hemimercaptal of cytotoxic methylglyoxal and glutathione to nontoxic S-D-lactoylglutathione. Human GlxI, for which the structure is known, is active in the presence of Zn(2+). Unexpectedly, the Escherichia coli enzyme is inactive in the presence of Zn(2+) and is maximally active(More)
The ubiquitous glyoxalase system converts toxic alpha-keto aldehydes into their corresponding nontoxic 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids, utilizing glutathione (GSH) as a cofactor. The first enzyme in this system, glyoxalase I (GlxI), catalyzes the isomerization of the hemithioacetal formed nonenzymatically between GSH and cytotoxic alpha-keto aldehydes. To study(More)
Peptides selected from phage-displayed libraries have been found to exhibit high-affinity binding to carbon nanotubes including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and single-walled carbon nanohorns. One unique feature of these peptides is that their amino acid sequences are rich in tryptophan and histidine residues. The(More)
In an effort to differentiate between alternative mechanistic schemes that have been postulated for Escherichia coli methionine aminopeptidase (eMetAP), the modes of binding of a series of products and phosphorus-based transition-state analogues were determined by X-ray crystallography. Methionine phosphonate, norleucine phosphonate, and methionine(More)
A novel phosphate transfer process involving the non-enzymatic transfer of a phosphate group from inositol pyrophosphates to serine residues in proteins has been recently reported. Semi-empirical calculations at the PM3/SM5.2 level were undertaken to explore the effect of inositol pyrophosphate structure and overall charge on the thermodynamics of this(More)
The structure of the antifungal drug 5-hydroxy-4-oxonorvaline (HON) in complex with its target homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD) has been determined by X-ray diffraction to 2.6 A resolution. HON shows potent in vitro and in vivo activity against various fungal pathogens despite its weak (2 mM) affinity for HSD in the steady state. The structure together with(More)