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1. Data on morphological and physiological parameters from 346 species of birds were collected from diverse sources. 2. The observed relationships among some pairs of variables showed differences between the five flight styles into which the studied birds were classified. 3. The characteristic kind of flight for each species is related to four easily(More)
Oxygen stores available for aerobic diving were studied in the freshwater turtle (Mauremys caspica leprosa) at three constant body temperatures (15 degrees, 25 degrees, and 35 degrees C) and during the thermal transient (30 degrees-15 degrees C) induced by immersion in cold water. The term "aerobic dive limit" has been defined as the maximal duration of the(More)
This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, pin -n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The(More)
This paper describes the silicon microstrip modules in the barrel section of the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The module requirements, components and assembly techniques are given, as well as first results of the module performance on the fully assembled barrels that make up the detector being(More)
The ABCD3TA is a 128-channel ASIC with binary architecture for the readout of silicon strip particle detectors in the Semiconductor Tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The chip comprises fast front-end and amplitude discriminator circuits using bipolar devices, a binary pipeline for first level trigger latency, a second level(More)
The challenges for the tracking detector systems at the LHC are unprecedented in terms of the number of channels, the required read-out speed and the expected radiation levels. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) end-caps have a total of about 3 million electronics channels each reading out every 25 ns into its own on-chip 3:3 ms buffer. The highest(More)
The requirements for the optical links of the ATLAS SCT are described. From the individual detector modules to the first patch panel, the electrical services are integrated with the optical links to aid in mechanical design, construction and integration. The system architecture and critical elements of the system are described. The optical links for the(More)
A novel optical beamforming architecture for phased-array antennas operating at millimeter-wave frequencies is presented. Experimental results at 28 GHz have demonstrated very good performance for this technique, based on optical upconversion and wideband chirped fiber gratings.
A triaxial alveolar gas diagram to depict fractional concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen is described, in which the R = 1 line is always implicit. Although it is not claimed that this representation leads to new insights into respiratory physiology, a method of plotting on a triaxial coordinate system has been found to be well suited to(More)
The effects of two different degrees of experimentally induced anemia and the consequent high percentage of circulating immature erythrocytes on oxygen affinity (pH 7.5 and 41 degrees C), erythrocyte organic phosphates, and Hb fractions have been studied in quail. Blood reticulocytes reached percentages of 24 and 69-87% in the first and second experiments,(More)
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