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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters cells in vitro via CD4 and a coreceptor. Which of 15 known coreceptors are important in vivo is poorly defined but may be inferred from disease-modifying mutations, as for CCR5. Here two single nucleotide polymorphisms are described in Caucasians in CX3CR1, an HIV coreceptor and leukocyte chemotactic/adhesion(More)
BACKGROUND Zidovudine is commonly administered during pregnancy to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. We investigated mitochondrial toxic effects in children exposed to zidovudine in utero and after birth. METHODS We analysed observations of a trial of tolerance of combined zidovudine and lamivudine and preliminary results of a continuing(More)
To evaluate the benefit of combined antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors (CART) on survival time and neurological progression in patients with AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), 81 consecutive PML cases, collected between January 1990 and June 1998, were reviewed. Fifteen patients were neuropathologically proven.(More)
JC virus (JCV) load was determined by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 12 patients with AIDS-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and compared with clinical outcome. JCV loads varied widely (3-7 log10 JCV equivalents/mL of CSF) and were apparently not related to absolute CD4 cell counts or(More)
CONTEXT Zidovudine reduces maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection by two thirds. Combination antiretroviral therapies are potentially more effective prevention. OBJECTIVES To assess the safety of perinatal lamivudine-zidovudine therapy, especially in children, and its effects on viral load, acquisition of drug(More)
The abilities of the different cells from human central nervous system (CNS) to produce IL-6, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha were tested in vitro using either cultures enriched in human embryonic microglial cells or primary cultures of human embryonic CNS cells. High amounts of IL-6, low amounts of IL-1 beta but no TNF-alpha were detected in supernatants of(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyse the influence of age at seroconversion and sexual exposure group on the progression of HIV disease. DESIGN This multicentre prospective cohort study involved 443 subjects whose date of HIV infection was known to within +/- 1 year. Individuals whose sexual behaviour was exclusively heterosexual after HIV infection constituted the(More)
We studied the propagation and the impact of zidovudine prevention on the human immunodeficiency virus-1 transmission rate from infected mothers to their infants in the French nationwide prospective cohort. Infection was diagnosed in the children on the basis of at least two positive human immunodeficiency virus-1 polymerase chain reaction tests, culture,(More)