J-F Delfraissy

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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters cells in vitro via CD4 and a coreceptor. Which of 15 known coreceptors are important in vivo is poorly defined but may be inferred from disease-modifying mutations, as for CCR5. Here two single nucleotide polymorphisms are described in Caucasians in CX3CR1, an HIV coreceptor and leukocyte chemotactic/adhesion(More)
BACKGROUND Zidovudine is commonly administered during pregnancy to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. We investigated mitochondrial toxic effects in children exposed to zidovudine in utero and after birth. METHODS We analysed observations of a trial of tolerance of combined zidovudine and lamivudine and preliminary results of a continuing(More)
CONTEXT Zidovudine reduces maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection by two thirds. Combination antiretroviral therapies are potentially more effective prevention. OBJECTIVES To assess the safety of perinatal lamivudine-zidovudine therapy, especially in children, and its effects on viral load, acquisition of drug(More)
BACKGROUND The immune deficiency of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is not fully corrected with ARV therapy. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) can boost CD4 T-cell counts, but optimal dosing and mechanisms of cellular increases need to be defined. METHODS We performed a randomized placebo-controlled dose escalation (10, 20 and 30 µg/kg) trial of 3 weekly(More)
Virus load in pregnancy and its relation to mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission were studied prospectively. From 1989 to 1994, 320 HIV-infected women from 18 centers had plasma samples stored. Among women not receiving antiretroviral therapy, the polymerase chain reaction RNA level was 3.6 log at delivery, and 15% of women had(More)
CONTEXT It is unclear whether elective cesarean delivery may have a protective effect against the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). OBJECTIVE To investigate whether mode of delivery has an impact on perinatal HIV-1 transmission in the presence of zidovudine prophylaxis. DESIGN A prospective cohort study. SETTING The 85 perinatal(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the spontaneous course, before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), of HIV-1 RNA during the AIDS-free period of the disease. To assess the predictive value of changes in HIV-1 RNA levels. DESIGN A total of 330 patients with a known date of infection followed in the SEROCO cohort. METHODS HIV-1 RNA(More)
The abilities of the different cells from human central nervous system (CNS) to produce IL-6, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha were tested in vitro using either cultures enriched in human embryonic microglial cells or primary cultures of human embryonic CNS cells. High amounts of IL-6, low amounts of IL-1 beta but no TNF-alpha were detected in supernatants of(More)
HIV infection activates abnormally the immune system and the chronic phase is accompanied by marked alterations in the CD8 compartment. The expression of CD127 (IL-7R alpha chain) by memory CD8 T lymphocytes in HIV-infected patients is analysed and reported. The memory CD8 T cell subset was characterized by expression of CD45RA and CD27 markers, and CD127(More)
We studied the propagation and the impact of zidovudine prevention on the human immunodeficiency virus-1 transmission rate from infected mothers to their infants in the French nationwide prospective cohort. Infection was diagnosed in the children on the basis of at least two positive human immunodeficiency virus-1 polymerase chain reaction tests, culture,(More)