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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
The human genome is by far the largest genome to be sequenced, and its size and complexity present many challenges for sequence assembly. The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium constructed a map of the whole genome to enable the selection of clones for sequencing and for the accurate assembly of the genome sequence. Here we report the(More)
The genomic organization of the human protocadherin alpha, beta, and gamma gene clusters (designated Pcdh alpha [gene symbol PCDHA], Pcdh beta [PCDHB], and Pcdh gamma [PCDHG]) is remarkably similar to that of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes. The extracellular and transmembrane domains of each protocadherin protein are encoded by an unusually large(More)
We have placed 7,600 cytogenetically defined landmarks on the draft sequence of the human genome to help with the characterization of genes altered by gross chromosomal aberrations that cause human disease. The landmarks are large-insert clones mapped to chromosome bands by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Each clone contains a sequence tag that is(More)
The present study investigated the effect of substance P (SP) and protein kinase inhibitors (H7 and HA1004) on beta-amyloid peptide-induced proliferation of neonatal rat brain cells in primary cultures. The beta-amyloid peptide1-28 (designated as beta AP28), at nanomolar concentrations (10(-9) M), significantly (P < or = 0.05) increased the proliferation of(More)
A human subtelomeric repeat (designated as the HST repeat) has been isolated and characterized from a yeast artificial chromosome containing one human telomere. This repeat is located immediately adjacent to the telomeric T2AG3 repeats at the extreme termini of the human chromosomes. The DNA sequence of 3.6 kb of the HST repeat has been determined. The HST(More)
The alpha-like globin gene cluster in rabbits contains embryonic zeta-globin genes, an adult alpha-globin gene, and theta-globin genes of undetermined function. The basic arrangement of genes, deduced from analysis of cloned DNA fragments, is 5'-zeta 0-zeta 1-alpha 1-theta 1-zeta 2-zeta 3-theta 2-3'. However, the pattern of restriction fragments containing(More)
Brain S100, an acidic protein with Ca2+-binding and neurotrophic properties, may be involved in the genesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Based on sharing of common antigens between the immune and nervous systems, we performed a comparative analysis of S100 in blood immunocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes) and brain cells. By using polyclonal antibodies to(More)
Novice psychiatric nurses experience heavy workloads, insufficient training and support in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to understand the working experiences of novice psychiatric nurses during their first year in a clinical setting. A qualitative phenomenological approach, using semi-structured face-to-face interviews was used. Narratives were(More)