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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
The genomic organization of the human protocadherin alpha, beta, and gamma gene clusters (designated Pcdh alpha [gene symbol PCDHA], Pcdh beta [PCDHB], and Pcdh gamma [PCDHG]) is remarkably similar to that of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes. The extracellular and transmembrane domains of each protocadherin protein are encoded by an unusually large(More)
The human genome is by far the largest genome to be sequenced, and its size and complexity present many challenges for sequence assembly. The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium constructed a map of the whole genome to enable the selection of clones for sequencing and for the accurate assembly of the genome sequence. Here we report the(More)
We have placed 7,600 cytogenetically defined landmarks on the draft sequence of the human genome to help with the characterization of genes altered by gross chromosomal aberrations that cause human disease. The landmarks are large-insert clones mapped to chromosome bands by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Each clone contains a sequence tag that is(More)
The present study investigated the effect of substance P (SP) and protein kinase inhibitors (H7 and HA1004) on beta-amyloid peptide-induced proliferation of neonatal rat brain cells in primary cultures. The beta-amyloid peptide1-28 (designated as beta AP28), at nanomolar concentrations (10(-9) M), significantly (P < or = 0.05) increased the proliferation of(More)
C repeats constitute the predominant family of short interspersed repeats (SINEs) in the rabbit genome. Determination of the nucleotide sequence 5' to rabbit zeta-globin genes reveals clusters of C repeats, and analysis of these and other sequenced regions of rabbit chromosomes shows that the C repeats have a strong tendency to insert within or in close(More)
Two classes of generalized concatenated (GC) codes with convolutional outer codes are studied. The rst class is based on the classical Plotkin ja bjbj construction. A new suboptimal multi-stage soft decision algorithm is proposed and the corresponding performance bounds are obtained. These codes are shown to achieve better performance than conventional(More)
The alpha-like globin gene cluster in rabbits contains embryonic zeta-globin genes, an adult alpha-globin gene, and theta-globin genes of undetermined function. The basic arrangement of genes, deduced from analysis of cloned DNA fragments, is 5'-zeta 0-zeta 1-alpha 1-theta 1-zeta 2-zeta 3-theta 2-3'. However, the pattern of restriction fragments containing(More)
Cold-responsive (COR) genes participate in the response of plants to low-temperature stress. In this study, we isolated and characterized a cold-responsive and light-inducible gene COR15B from Arabidopsis thaliana. Chloroplast damage caused by mutations (albino mutants seca1, secy1, and tic20) or by a norflurazon (NF) treatment resulted in a reduction of(More)
Brain S100, an acidic protein with Ca2+-binding and neurotrophic properties, may be involved in the genesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Based on sharing of common antigens between the immune and nervous systems, we performed a comparative analysis of S100 in blood immunocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes) and brain cells. By using polyclonal antibodies to(More)