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The sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric ganglia are the main components of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and are all derived from the neural crest. The factors needed for these structures to develop include the transcription factor Mash1, the glial-derived neurotrophic factor GNDF and its receptor subunits, and the neuregulin signalling(More)
Recent evidence suggests that specific families of homeodomain transcription factors control the generation and survival of distinct neuronal types. We had previously characterized the homeobox gene Phox2a, which is expressed in differentiating neurons of the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system as well as in motor nuclei of the hindbrain.(More)
Motor neurons are a widely studied model of vertebrate neurogenesis. They can be subdivided in somatic, branchial and visceral motor neurons. Recent studies on the dorsoventral patterning of the rhombencephalon have implicated the homeobox genes Pax6 and Nkx2.2 in the early divergence of the transcriptional programme of hindbrain somatic and visceral motor(More)
The closely related homeobox genes Phox2a and Phox2b are expressed in all central and peripheral noradrenergic neurons. Our previous results have shown that Phox2a controls the differentiation of the main noradrenergic center of the brain, the locus coeruleus, but leaves unaffected the other noradrenergic centers. Here, we report that Phox2b has a wider and(More)
The mouse Otlx2 gene is a new member of the paired-like family of homeobox genes whose human homologue, RIEG, is involved in Rieger syndrome, an autosomal-dominant disorder. One of the cardinal features of Rieger syndrome is dental hypoplasia, indicating that Otlx2/RIEG activity is essential for normal tooth development. Here, we analyzed the expression of(More)
The cranial sensory ganglia, in contrast to those of the trunk, have a dual embryonic origin arising from both neurogenic placodes and neural crest. Neurogenic placodes are focal thickenings of ectoderm, found exclusively in the head of vertebrate embryos. These structures can be split into two groups based on the positions that they occupy within the(More)
Many transcription factors, and most prominently among them, homeodomain proteins, are expressed in specific groups of cells in the developing nervous system in patterns that suggest their involvement in neural fate determination. How various aspects of neural identity are controlled by such transcription factors, or sets of them, is still mostly unknown.(More)
Multipotent precursors able to generate neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes have previously been isolated from human brain embryos and recently from neurogenic regions of the adult human brains. The isolation of multipotent neural precursors from adult human should open new perspectives to study adult neurogenesis and for brain repair. The present(More)
The immunoglobulin superfamily is a group of proteins, each made of one or several domains sharing key structural features with either the variable (V) or the constant (C) immunoglobulin domains. It includes such functionally important members as the immunoglobulins themselves, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II and T-cell receptor(More)
Specific metabolic features, such as glutamate reuptake, have been associated with normal functions of mature astrocytes. In this study, we examined whether these characteristics are acquired together with classical phenotypic markers of differentiated astrocytes. Differentiation of E14 mouse neurospheres into astrocytes was induced by the addition of fetal(More)