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Chemokines and their receptors have been identified as major regulators controlling the functional organization of secondary lymphoid organs. Here we show that expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), a chemokine receptor required for B cell homing to B cell follicles, defines a novel subpopulation of B helper T cells localizing to follicles. In(More)
The tissues of the central nervous system are effectively shielded from the blood circulation by specialized vessels that are impermeable not only to cells, but also to most macromolecules circulating in the blood. Despite this seemingly absolute seclusion, central nervous system tissues are subject to immune surveillance and are vulnerable to autoimmune(More)
The clinical picture of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is critically dependent on the nature of the target autoantigen and the genetic background of the experimental animals. Potentially lethal EAE is mediated by myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T cells in Lewis rats, whereas transfer of S100beta- or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(More)
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) and the environment of the central nervous system (CNS) guard the nervous tissue from peripheral immune cells. In the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis, myelin-reactive T-cell blasts are thought to transgress the BBB and create a pro-inflammatory environment in the CNS, thereby making possible a second autoimmune attack(More)
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), which is characterized by the presence of pathogenic serum autoantibodies against aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in the vast majority of patients. The contribution of T cells to the formation of astrocyte destructive lesions is currently unclear. However,(More)
Genome-wide mutations and selection within a population are the basis of natural evolution. A similar process occurs during antibody affinity maturation when immunoglobulin genes are hypermutated and only those B cells which express antibodies of improved antigen-binding specificity are expanded. Protein evolution might be simulated in cell culture, if(More)
In recent years, the field of epigenetics has grown dramatically and has become one of the most dynamic and fast-growing branches of molecular biology. The amount of diseases suspected of being influenced by DNA methylation is rising steadily and includes common diseases such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes,(More)
Since Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes a persistent infection in human B cells, B cells are a critical compartment for viral pathogenesis. RTA, the replication and transcription activator of KSHV, can either directly bind to DNA or use cellular DNA binding factors including CBF1/CSL as DNA adaptors. In addition, the viral factors(More)
During secondary immunoglobulin (Ig) diversification in vertebrates, the sequence of the variable region of Ig genes may be altered by templated or non-templated mechanisms. In both cases, cytidine deamination by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in the transcribed Ig loci leads to DNA lesions, which are repaired by conservative homologous(More)
Tumor side population (SP) cells display stem-like properties that can be modulated by treatment with the calcium channel blocker verapamil. Verapamil can enhance the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic drugs and multidrug resistance by targeting the transport function of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This study focused on the therapeutic potential of(More)