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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is currently the fourth leading cause for cancer-related mortality. Stem cells have been implicated in pancreatic tumor growth, but the specific role of these cancer stem cells in tumor biology, including metastasis, is still uncertain. We found that human pancreatic cancer tissue contains cancer stem cells defined by CD133(More)
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes constitutive shedding by a protease activity called alpha-secretase. This is considered an important mechanism preventing the generation of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). alpha-Secretase appears to be a metalloprotease of the ADAM family, but its identity remains to be established. Using a(More)
Chemokines and their receptors have been identified as major regulators controlling the functional organization of secondary lymphoid organs. Here we show that expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), a chemokine receptor required for B cell homing to B cell follicles, defines a novel subpopulation of B helper T cells localizing to follicles. In(More)
Homing behavior and function of autoimmune CD4+ T cells in vivo was analyzed before and during EAE, using MBP-specific T cells retrovirally engineered to express the gene of green fluorescent protein. The cells migrate from parathymic lymph nodes to blood and to the spleen. Preceding disease onset, large numbers of effector cells invade the CNS, with only(More)
Infection of primary B-lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) leads to growth transformation of these B-cells in vitro. EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), one of the first genes expressed after EBV infection of B-cells, is a transcriptional activator of viral and cellular genes and is essential for the transforming potential of the virus. We generated(More)
Bacterial DNA and immunostimulatory (i.s.) synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) act as adjuvants for Th1 responses and cytotoxic T cell responses to proteinaceous antigens. Dendritic cells (DC) can be referred to as "nature's adjuvant" since they display the unique capacity to sensitize naive T cells. Here, we demonstrate that bacterial DNA or i.s.(More)
Evidence is accumulating that members of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family are found on the cell surface of certain tumor cells where they elicit a strong antitumor immune response. We demonstrated that HSP72, the major heat-inducible form of the HSP70 group, is located on the cell surface of approximately 60% of the human colon carcinoma cells CX2(More)
The product of the proto-oncogene c-myc (myc) is a potent activator of cell proliferation. In Burkitt lymphoma (BL), a human B-cell tumor, myc is consistently found to be transcriptionally activated by chromosomal translocation. The mechanisms by which myc promotes cell cycle progression in B-cells is not known. As a model for myc activation in BL cells, we(More)
CX+/CX- and Colo+/Colo- tumor sublines with stable heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) high and low membrane expression were generated by fluorescence activated cell sorting of the parental human colon (CX2) and pancreas (Colo357) carcinoma cell lines, using an Hsp70-specific antibody. Two-parameter flow cytometry revealed that Hsp70 colocalizes with Bag-4, also(More)
The detection of microbial molecules via Toll-like receptors (TLR) in B cells is not well characterized. In this study, we found that both naive and memory B cells lack TLR4 (receptor for LPS) but express TLR9 (receptor for CpG motifs) and produce IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-10 upon stimulation with CpG oligonucleotides (ODN), synthetic mimics of microbial DNA.(More)