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Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease presenting clinically with parkinsonian, cerebellar, and autonomic features. α-Synuclein (αsyn), encoded by the gene SNCA, is the main constituent of glial cytoplasmic inclusion (GCI) found in oligodendrocytes in MSA, but the methods of its accumulation have not been established. The(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE "Incidental" MRI white matter (WM) lesions, comprising periventricular lesions (PVLs) and deep subcortical lesions (DSCLs), are common in the aging brain. Direct evidence of ischemia associated with incidental WM lesions (WMLs) has been lacking, and their pathogenesis is unresolved. METHODS A population-based, postmortem cohort(More)
Astrocytes contribute to a variety of functions in the brain, including homeostasis, synapse formation, plasticity, and metabolism. Astrocyte dysfunction may disrupt their normal role, including neuronal support, thereby contributing to neurodegenerative pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). To understand the role of astrocytes in the(More)
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a hallmark of neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neurovascular dysfunction during BBB breakdown remain elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as key regulators of pathogenic responses, although their role in central nervous(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterised by perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates and plaques of demyelination. Chemokines have been shown to play an important role in the activation and directional migration of cells to sites of CNS inflammation. The action of chemokines(More)
Of 44 patients with cancer of the large bowel, 36 ( 82%) had high faecal bile-acid concentrations compared with only 15 (17%) out of 90 patients with other diseases. 31 (70%) of the 44 patients with large-bowel cancer had high faecal bile-acid concentrations in the presence of faecal clostridia able to dehydrogenate the bile-acid nucleus, compared with(More)
The cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a potent activator of human astrocytes, inducing or modulating expression of multiple proinflammatory genes via activation of the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). In this study, we examined whether IL-1beta signaling is regulated in these cells by(More)
AIMS Calcium dyshomeostasis is implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. However, much of the previous research has focused on changes in neuronal calcium signalling. In a recent microarray study we identified dysregulation of several key signalling pathways including the Ca(2+) signalling pathway(More)
BACKGROUND Glial tau pathology is seen in certain tauopathies and in ageing. We determined its frequency in ageing mesial temporal lobe and its relationship to other tau pathologies in the MRC-CFAS population-representative neuropathology cohort. METHODS Mesial temporal lobe, including hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex and white matter, was(More)
Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced activation of nuclear factor, NF-κB has an important role in leukocyte adhesion to, and subsequent migration across, brain endothelial cells (BECs), which is crucial for the development of neuroinflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In contrast, microRNA-146a (miR-146a) has emerged as an anti-inflammatory(More)