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The entire DNA sequence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was determined using the M13-dideoxynucleotide technology. The genome is variable in size, but the sequence which was obtained comprises 124884 bp. Analysis of the sequence indicated that the genome contains 70 genes distributed about equally between the two DNA strands. The genes are organized(More)
We have determined the DNA sequence of the long unique region (UL) in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain 17. The UL sequence contained 107,943 residues and had a base composition of 66.9% G + C. Together with our previous work, this completes the sequence of HSV-1 DNA, giving a total genome length of 152,260 residues of base(More)
The dose-limiting side effect of the common colon cancer chemotherapeutic CPT-11 is severe diarrhea caused by symbiotic bacterial β-glucuronidases that reactivate the drug in the gut. We sought to target these enzymes without killing the commensal bacteria essential for human health. Potent bacterial β-glucuronidase inhibitors were identified by(More)
Connective tissues (CTs), which define bodily shape, must respond quickly, robustly and reversibly to deformations caused by internal and external stresses. Fibrillar (elastin, collagen) elasticity under tension depends on molecular and supramolecular mechanisms. A second intra-/inter-molecular pair, involving proteoglycans (PGs), is proposed to cope with(More)
Decorin is the archetypal small leucine rich repeat proteoglycan of the vertebrate extracellular matrix (ECM). With its glycosaminoglycuronan chain, it is responsible for stabilizing inter-fibrillar organization. Type I collagen is the predominant member of the fibrillar collagen family, fulfilling both organizational and structural roles in animal ECMs. In(More)
Analysis of patient tumors suggests that multiple MAP3 kinases (MAP3Ks) are critical for growth and metastasis of cancer cells. MAP3Ks selectively control the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and ERK5 in response to receptor tyrosine kinases and GTPases. We used MDA-MB-231 cells because of(More)
Concern about apparent increases in the prevalence of hypospadias--a congenital male reproductive-tract abnormality--in the 1960s to 1980s and the possible connection to increasing exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals have underlined the importance of effective surveillance of hypospadias prevalence in the population. We report here the prevalence of(More)
All cases of childhood cancer diagnosed before the 15th birthday in the years 1968-1982 and resident in the Northern Health Authority region have been registered. There were 1171 registrations and only two have been completely lost to follow up. The overall annual incidence of cancer was 107.1 per million children, similar to previously reported figures.(More)