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Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to antifolate chemotherapy is a significant problem where combinations such as Fansidar (pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine; PYR-SDX) are used in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria. Antifolate resistance has been associated with variant sequences of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS),(More)
DNA was extracted from 71 meat samples obtained from UK retail outlets. All of these DNA preparations gave the expected polymerase chain reaction products when amplified with primers specific for the species from which the meat originated. A second polymerase chain reaction analysis, using primers specific for the Toxoplasma gondii SAG2 locus, revealed the(More)
Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (Fansidar) is widely used in Africa for treating chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria. To clarify how parasite resistance to this combination arises, various lines of Plasmodium falciparum were used to investigate the role of naturally occurring mutations in the target enzyme, dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS), in the parasite(More)
New inhibitors are urgently needed to overcome the burgeoning problem of drug resistance in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Targeting the folate pathway has proved to be a powerful strategy for drug development against rapidly multiplying systems such as cancer cells and microorganisms. Antifolates have long been used for malaria treatment(More)
We describe a novel procedure for the immunofluorescent investigation of Plasmodium falciparum. This has allowed us to visualize clearly microtubular structures and their changing conformation through the erythrocytic cell-cycle, to the stage of cytodifferentiation leading to merozoite release. The images of spindle development we observed, together with an(More)
Dihydropteroate synthase (H2Pte synthase) is the target of the sulfur-based antimalarial drugs, which are frequently used in synergistic combination with inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (H2folate reductase) to combat chloroquine-resistant malaria. We have isolated the H2Pte synthase coding sequence of the most pathogenic human parasite Plasmodium(More)
The antifolate combination pyrimethamine/sulphadoxine (PYR/SDX; Fansidar) is frequently used to combat chloroquine-resistant malaria. Its success depends upon pronounced synergy between the two components, which target dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS) in the folate pathway. This synergy permits clearance of parasites(More)
Chemotherapy remains the only practicable tool to control falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, where >90% of the world's burden of malaria mortality and morbidity occurs. Resistance is rapidly eroding the efficacy of chloroquine, and the combination pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine is the most commonly chosen alternative. Resistant populations of Plasmodium(More)
We have exploited the recently developed ability to trans- fect the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to investigate the role of polymorphisms in the enzyme dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), identified in sulfadoxine-resistant field isolates. By using a truncated form of the dhps gene, specific mutations were introduced into the endogenous gene by(More)
Pyrimethamine acts by selectively inhibiting malarial dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS). Resistance in the most important human parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, initially results from an S108N mutation in the DHFR domain, with additional mutation (most commonly C59R or N51I or both) imparting much greater resistance. From a homology(More)