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What are the components that control the assembly of subcellular organelles in eukaryotic cells? Although membranes can clearly be distorted by cytosolic factors, very little is known about the intrinsic mechanisms that control the biogenesis, shape, and organization of organellar membranes. Here, we found that the unconventional phospholipid(More)
Cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous section makes it possible to observe cells and tissues at high resolution in a close-to-native state. The specimen remains hydrated; chemical fixation and staining are fully avoided. There is minimal molecular aggregation and the density observed in the image corresponds to the density in the object. Accordingly,(More)
The basic principles of the architecture of many viral protein shells have been successfully established from electron microscopy and X-ray data, but enveloped viruses have been more difficult to study because they resist crystallization and are easily deformed when prepared for electron microscopy. To avoid the limitations of conventional techniques when(More)
The regulation of microtubule dynamics is attributed to microtubule-associated proteins that bind to the microtubule outer surface, but little is known about cellular components that may associate with the internal side of microtubules. We used cryoelectron tomography to investigate in a quantitative manner the three dimensional structure of microtubules in(More)
Self-assembly of DNA with the four core histones but in the absence of H1 generates nucleosome core particles which are spaced randomly over large distances. Closely spaced core particles, however, exhibit a preferred short linkage which is not a multiple of 10 base pairs. They bind about 140 base pairs whereas apparently shorter DNA lengths per nucleosome(More)
Cryoelectron microscopy has been used to examine the three-dimensional (3-D) conformation of small oligonucleosomes from chicken erythrocyte nuclei after vitrification in solutions of differing ionic strength. From tilt pairs of micrographs, the 3-D location and orientation of the nucleosomal disks, and the paths of segments of exposed linker can be(More)
The shortest tube of constant diameter that can form a given knot represents the 'ideal' form of the knot. Ideal knots provide an irreducible representation of the knot, and they have some intriguing mathematical and physical features, including a direct correspondence with the time-averaged shapes of knotted DNA molecules in solution. Here we describe the(More)
Cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS) has recently been shown to provide images of biological specimens with unprecedented quality and resolution. Cutting the sections remains however the major difficulty. Here, we examine the parameters influencing the quality of the sections and analyse the resulting artefacts. They are in particular:(More)