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The key preparation steps in the Tokuyasu thawed frozen section technique for immunocytochemistry, namely freezing, sectioning, thawing, and drying, were studied. A spherical tissue culture cell was used as a model system. The frozen hydrated section technique indicated that glutaraldehyde-fixed, 2.1 M sucrose-infused pellets of cells were routinely(More)
A cryo-electron microscopy study of supercoiled DNA molecules freely suspended in cryo-vitrified buffer was combined with Monte Carlo simulations and gel electrophoretic analysis to investigate the role of intersegmental electrostatic repulsion in determining the shape of supercoiled DNA molecules. It is demonstrated here that a decrease of DNA-DNA(More)
What are the components that control the assembly of subcellular organelles in eukaryotic cells? Although membranes can clearly be distorted by cytosolic factors, very little is known about the intrinsic mechanisms that control the biogenesis, shape, and organization of organellar membranes. Here, we found that the unconventional phospholipid(More)
Axial deflection of DNA molecules in solution results from thermal motion and intrinsic curvature related to the DNA sequence. In order to measure directly the contribution of thermal motion we constructed intrinsically straight DNA molecules and measured their persistence length by cryo-electron microscopy. The persistence length of such intrinsically(More)
Although the formation of 30-nm chromatin fibers is thought to be the most basic event of chromatin compaction, it remains controversial because high-resolution imaging of chromatin in living eukaryotic cells had not been possible until now. Cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections is a relatively new technique, which enables direct high-resolution(More)
Cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous section makes it possible to observe cells and tissues at high resolution in a close-to-native state. The specimen remains hydrated; chemical fixation and staining are fully avoided. There is minimal molecular aggregation and the density observed in the image corresponds to the density in the object. Accordingly,(More)
Cryoelectron microscopy has been used to examine the three-dimensional (3-D) conformation of small oligonucleosomes from chicken erythrocyte nuclei after vitrification in solutions of differing ionic strength. From tilt pairs of micrographs, the 3-D location and orientation of the nucleosomal disks, and the paths of segments of exposed linker can be(More)