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BACKGROUND The flavivirus GB virus C (GBV-C, also designated hepatitis G virus) was identified in a search for hepatitis viruses, but no disease is currently known to be associated with it. We investigated the relation between coinfection with GBV-C and the long-term outcome in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS A total(More)
The branched DNA hybridization assay has been improved by the inclusion of the novel nucleotides, isoC and isoG, in the amplification sequences to prevent non-specific hybridization. The novel isoC, isoG-containing amplification sequences have no detectable interaction with any natural DNA sequence. The control of non-specific hybridization in turn permits(More)
In studies monitoring disease progression and therapeutic response, it is essential that the method used for hepatitis C virus (HCV) quantification not be influenced by genotypic variability. The branched DNA assay provides a reliable method for the quantification of HCV RNA. A modified set of oligonucleotide probes for the branched DNA assay was developed(More)
Genetically transformed maize plants were obtained from protoplasts treated with recombinant DNA. Protoplasts that were digested from embryogenic cell suspension cultures of maize inbred A188 were combined with plasmid DNA containing a gene coding for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) next to the 35S promoter region of cauliflower mosaic virus. A high(More)
The quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA has facilitated clinical research and expedited the development of antiretroviral drugs. The branched-DNA (bDNA) assay provides a reliable method for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA in human plasma and is considered one of the most reproducible assays ready for use in clinical trials. A(More)
Hepatitis G virus (HGV) is prevalent in patients with chronic liver disease and has been previously detected in liver specimens. However, it is unknown whether the virus is replicating in the liver or is simply a contaminant from serum. We sought to determine whether HGV was hepatotropic and to determine whether coinfection with HGV and hepatitis C virus(More)
RNA standards were developed for use in quantitative hybridization assays such as the Quantiplex HCV RNA Assay and Quantiplex HIV RNA Assay, which are based on branched DNA signal amplification. In vitro transcripts ranging in size from 0.5 to 9.4 kb were prepared and purified by phenol extraction following gel electrophoresis or column chromatography.(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the virologic activity of a ritonavir plus saquinavir-containing regimen in patients who have failed an indinavir or ritonavir-containing regimen. DESIGN Patients were identified through a retrospective study evaluating the incidence of indinavir or ritonavir failure in our clinic. PATIENTS Eighteen patients failing indinavir or(More)
The prevalence and consequences of hepatitis G virus (HGV) infection were determined in 180 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (predominantly male homosexuals) who participated in a trial that compared treatment with zidovudine versus interferon (IFN)-alpha versus the combination. HGV RNA levels were measured by branched DNA signal(More)
We have performed a user study where the popularity of each node in a hypertext database was presented with the links leading to that node. Popularity was computed by counting the number of users who had previously visited the node. Our users clearly incorporated popularity information in their decisions; we compare their browsing patterns with a control(More)