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Anatomical and physiological experiments have outlined a blueprint for the feedforward flow of activity in cortical circuits: signals are thought to propagate primarily from the middle cortical layer (layer 4, L4) up to L2/3 and down to the major cortical output layer (L5). Pharmacological manipulations, however, have contested this model and have suggested(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine intrarater reliability of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) estimation for shoulder internal rotation. The accuracy of the estimated 1RM was determined by establishing the actual 1RM. Fifteen subjects were positioned supine with the shoulder in 0 degrees abduction (position 1) and prone with the shoulder in 90 degrees(More)
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