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BACKGROUND As a test of plausibility for the hypothesis that schizophrenia can result from abnormal brain, especially cerebral cortical, development, these studies examined whether, in the rat, disruption of brain development initiated on embryonic day (E) 17, using the methylating agent methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM), leads to a schizophrenia-relevant(More)
BACKGROUND Behavioral inflexibility is a feature of schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and behavior addictions that likely results from heritable deficits in the inhibitory control over behavior. Here, we investigate the genetic basis of individual differences in flexibility, measured using an operant reversal learning task. METHODS(More)
Addictions are often characterized as forms of impulsive behavior. That said, it is often noted that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, spanning several psychological domains. This review describes the relationship between varieties of impulsivity and addiction-related behaviors, the nature of the causal relationship between the two, and the(More)
Compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking are important substance-abuse behaviors that have been linked to alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission and to impaired inhibitory control. Evidence supports the notions that abnormal D₂ receptor-mediated dopamine transmission and inhibitory control may be heritable risk factors for addictions, and that they(More)
Repeated exposure to addictive drugs causes neuroadaptive changes in cortico-limbic-striatal circuits that may underlie alterations in incentive-motivational processes and reward-related learning. Such drug-induced alterations may be relevant to drug addiction because enhanced incentive motivation and increased control over behavior by drug-associated(More)
Alterations in motivation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders, including substance abuse and depression. Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse or stress is known to persistently induce the transcription factor deltaFosB in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum, effects hypothesized to contribute to(More)
BACKGROUND Drug addiction in humans is associated with abnormal metabolic activity within the amygdala and heightened control of behavior by drugs and drug-related (conditioned) stimuli. Drug-induced neuroadaptations, including activation of cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), within the amygdala may contribute to the(More)
The current experiments examined the effects of acute or repeated, intermittent administrations of cocaine on the acquisition and reversal of object discriminations by Vervet monkeys in order to test the hypothesis that cocaine treatment affects performance of tasks that depend upon the functions of the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. An acute dose of(More)
The NIH-funded CNTRICS initiative has coordinated efforts to promote the vertical translation of novel procognitive molecules from testing in mice, rats and non-human primates, to clinical efficacy in patients with schizophrenia. CNTRICS highlighted improving construct validation of tasks across species to increase the likelihood that the translation of a(More)
μ-opioid receptors (MORs) are necessary for the analgesic and addictive effects of opioids such as morphine, but the MOR-expressing neuronal populations that mediate the distinct opiate effects remain elusive. Here we devised a new conditional bacterial artificial chromosome rescue strategy to show, in mice, that targeted MOR expression in a subpopulation(More)