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The lysosomal response of a murine macrophage-like tumor cell line (J774) during persistent infection with Coxiella burnettii was examined. By using acid phosphatase as a lysosomal marker, it was shown that phagosome-lysosome fusion occurred in J774 cells persistently infected with C. burnetii. This observation was verified using thorium dioxide, an(More)
Challenges associated with low-K flip-chip packaging arise from properties inherent with the dielectric material properties, i.e., lower strength, lower adhesions, and higher TCE (as compared to FSG dielectrics). In order to assemble and qualify a reliable and robust package, a lot of attention needs to be focused on items like material selection, bump type(More)
This work investigates the effect of passivation opening diameter and underbump metallization (UBM) diameter on the electromigration (EM) resistance of Sn/Pb eutectic solder bumps. For the bump geometries studied, the electromigration lifetime depends strongly on the UBM area but weakly on the passivation opening area. The applicability of Black's model for(More)
This paper investigates the effect of current distribution to the bump and current crowding on the electromigration (EM) of Sn/Pb eutectic solder bumps. The peak current density in the bump is found to have a significant effect on the EM lifetime of the tested structures and, thus, impacts the maximum allowable bump current. A finite-element model is(More)
The dose of cyclophosphamide that permits the colonization of the nasopharynx with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the survival of the animal was determined in mice. This dose, 100 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, allowed P aeruginosa to colonize but not invade mouse nasal epithelium. Mice treated with 100 mg/kg cyclophosphamide were exposed to aerosol of 35S-labeled(More)
Cell-mediated immunity is clearly the critical host defense mechanism against human Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever); the role of specific antibody is unclear. By using a mouse macrophage tumor cell line, J774, persistently infected with C. burnetii phase I organisms, in a standard 51Cr-release cytotoxicity assay, we explored the possibility that(More)
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