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Single-unit recordings were made from midbrain areas in monkeys trained to make both conjugate and disjunctive (vergence) eye movements. Previous work had identified cells with a firing rate proportional to the vergence angle, without regard to the direction of conjugate gaze. The present study describes the activity of neurons that burst for disjunctive(More)
The cerebellum is thought to modulate saccadic activity in the primate in order to maintain targeting accuracy, and the cerebellotectal pathway has been posited to play a role in this modulation. However, anatomical descriptions of this pathway in primates are sketchy and conflicting. To determine whether the organization of the cerebellotectal projection(More)
Single-unit recordings were made from neurons with horizontal eye position sensitivity in the oculomotor and abducens nuclei in alert monkeys. The animals were trained to perform a visual tracking task that resulted in conjugate eye movements or symmetrical vergence movements. Scatterplots were obtained for unit firing rate as a function of the position of(More)
The goal of this study was to determine the pattern of the connections between the midbrain and cerebellum that may play a role in the modulation of the near-response in the macaque. Injection of the retrograde tracer wheat germ agglutinin conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) into the physiologically identified midbrain near-response region, which(More)
Extraocular muscle is fundamentally distinct from other skeletal muscles. Here, we review the biological organization of the extraocular muscles with the intent of understanding this novel muscle group in the context of oculomotor system function. The specific objectives of this review are threefold. The first objective is to understand the anatomic(More)
PURPOSE The authors analyzed eyelid kinematics in normal aging subjects to test the hypothesis that eyelid movements exhibit age-related changes and that blink disorders prevalent among the elderly, in turn, represent an outcome of normal aging processes. METHODS The electromagnetic search coil technique was used to study blinks in normal human subjects(More)
Although extraocular muscle is perhaps the least understood component of the oculomotor system, these muscles represent the most common site of surgical intervention in the treatment of strabismus and other ocular motility disorders. This review synthesizes information derived from both basic and clinical studies in order to develop a better understanding(More)
The rules that govern many aspects of skeletal muscle structure and function are very different for the extraocular muscle allotype. The myoblast lineages present in the extraocular muscle primordia are permissive for generation of an unusually wide range of fiber types. The balance that is struck between genetic specification and activity dependent factors(More)
1. Rhesus monkeys were trained to look to brief visual targets presented in an otherwise darkened room. On some trials, after the visual target was extinguished but before a saccade to it could be initiated, the eyes were driven to another orbital position by microstimulation of the paramedian pontine reticular formation. If, as current models of the(More)