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OBJECTIVES We sought to obtain evidence about the scope of women's empowerment and the mechanisms underlying the significant reduction in intimate partner violence documented by the Intervention With Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) cluster-randomized trial in rural South Africa. METHODS The IMAGE intervention combined a microfinance(More)
BACKGROUND HIV infection and intimate-partner violence share a common risk environment in much of southern Africa. The aim of the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) study was to assess a structural intervention that combined a microfinance programme with a gender and HIV training curriculum. METHODS Villages in the rural(More)
The US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke convened major stakeholders in June 2012 to discuss how to improve the methodological reporting of animal studies in grant applications and publications. The main workshop recommendation is that at a minimum studies should report on sample-size estimation, whether and how animals were(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess effects of a combined microfinance and training intervention on HIV risk behavior among young female participants in rural South Africa. DESIGN : Secondary analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from a cluster randomized trial, the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity study. METHODS Eight villages were(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore whether adding a gender and HIV training programme to microfinance initiatives can lead to health and social benefits beyond those achieved by microfinance alone. METHODS Cross-sectional data were derived from three randomly selected matched clusters in rural South Africa: (i) four villages with 2-year exposure to the Intervention(More)
Extraocular muscle is fundamentally distinct from other skeletal muscles. Here, we review the biological organization of the extraocular muscles with the intent of understanding this novel muscle group in the context of oculomotor system function. The specific objectives of this review are threefold. The first objective is to understand the anatomic(More)
BACKGROUND A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted to estimate the efficacy of preventive therapy for tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected adults in Lusaka, Zambia. The main outcome measures were the incidence of TB, mortality and adverse drug reactions. METHODS During a 2 year period, 1053 HIV-positive individuals without evidence(More)
HIV infection has now been consistently identified as the major cause of death in young Africans in both urban and rural areas. In Africa, several studies have defined the clinical presentation of HIV disease but there have only been a limited number of autopsy studies. Because of the scarcity of autopsy data and the possibility of differing type and(More)
During an epidemic of cholera in Guinea, West Africa, in 1986, the authors conducted two studies of risk factors for transmission. In the capital city, 35 hospitalized cholera patients were more likely than 70 neighborhood-matched controls to have eaten leftover peanut sauces (odds ration (OR) = 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-8.2), but less likely to(More)
The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), which incorporated the WHO DOTS strategy was introduced in India in the mid-1990s. An operational research project was conducted between 1996 and 1998 to assess the needs and perspectives of patients and providers in two chest clinics in Delhi, Moti Nagar and Nehru Nagar, during the introduction(More)