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The shoulder is the most commonly dislocated joint in the body. The primary restraint to anterior instability is the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament, where lesions are found after dislocation. The amount of surgical plication required to eliminate instability and maintain full range of shoulder motion remains unclear. We performed(More)
Histologic studies have documented the presence of mechanoreceptors in the glenohumeral ligaments, capsule, and labrum; however, direct evidence of an intact afferent electrical pathway originating in structures in the shoulder is lacking. Because somatosensory cortical evoked potentials are transmitted by way of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and(More)
The thoracic outlet syndrome is a compressive neurovascular condition of the upper extremity. The neurologic, arterial, and venous structures may be affected individually or in combination in any given patient. Multiple surgical and medical subspecialists may be involved in the care of these patients, including orthopedic, vascular, and thoracic surgeons,(More)
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