J D Blanchard

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The dispersion of aerosol boluses in the lung is a probe for convective mixing and has been proposed as a marker for abnormal lung function. To better understand the factors underlying this phenomenon, aerosol dispersion was compared in human subjects, dogs, and various physical models. In all systems, dispersion increased with the volumetric penetration of(More)
Convective gas mixing in the respiratory tract of 17 healthy male subjects was studied by an aerosol bolus technique. The monodisperse 1 micron di(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate droplets we used behaved as a nondiffusing gas. As the bolus was inspired to different depths and then expired, we measured the extent to which the bolus spread. We found that the deeper the(More)
Long-term retention of particles in airways is controversial. However, precise anatomic localization of the particles is not possible in people. In this study the anatomic location of retained particles after shallow bolus inhalation was determined in anesthetized, ventilated beagle dogs. Fifty 30-cm(3) boluses containing monodisperse 2.5-micron polystyrene(More)
A new family of matrices for DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis is presented. These matrices combine easy injection with high sieving performances, due to thermal switching between a low and a high viscosity state through a modest increase in temperature (approximately 20 degrees C). They are constructed from a hydrophilic polymer backbone with(More)
We determined the oxidant activity in lung airways, parenchyma, and systemic tissues in response to smoke inhalation, comparing lipid peroxidation with physiologic and histologic change. Adult sheep were given a controlled amount of cooled smoke from burned cotton toweling, containing a uniform particle diameter of 3-4 microns. The mean peak(More)
This study evaluated the ability of aerosol-derived lung morphometry to noninvasively probe airway and acinar dimensions. Effective air-space diameters (EAD) were calculated from the time-dependent gravitational losses of 1-microns particles from inhaled aerosol boluses during breath holding. In 17 males [33 +/- 7 (SD) yr] the relationship between EAD and(More)
We determined the effect of a graded increase in lung exposure to a toxic smoke by increasing smoke tidal volume (VT) or the number of smoke breaths. Sheep were anesthetized and then insufflated with cooled cotton toweling smoke; VT was 5, 10, or 20 ml/kg, and smoke breaths were varied from 12 to 48. The smoke had a uniform particle size (3 +/- 0.4 microns(More)
Results from numerical models and theoretical analyses are presented that describe the development of eddy current heating in copper bus bars, both with and without superconducting elements, in response to the rapid decay of current in a nearby superconducting magnet such as in micro-SMES systems. The analysis differs from those available in the open(More)
How variable is the deposition of inhaled methacholine (MCH) in the respiratory tract during a challenge test? Does this variability contribute to the variability of airway responsiveness? To examine these questions we estimated the deposition of polydisperse MCH droplets by measuring the deposition of surrogate diethylhexyl sebacate (DEHS) droplets that(More)
An aerosol bolus undergoes changes in shape between its inspiration and expiration. In comparison with the inhaled bolus, the exhaled bolus is more spread because of convective mixing, may have a shift in the location of the mode caused by asymmetries of filling and emptying of lung units, and contains fewer particles because of particle deposition. We(More)