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We propose here a conceptual framework for understanding the optic nerve head (ONH) as a biomechanical structure. Basic principles of biomechanical engineering are used to propose a central role for intraocular pressure (IOP)-related stress and strain in the physiology of ONH aging and the pathophysiology of glaucomatous damage. Our paradigm suggests that(More)
Glaucoma is a blinding diseases in which damage to the axons results in loss of retinal ganglion cells. Experimental evidence indicates that chronic intraocular pressure elevation initiates axonal insult at the level of the lamina cribrosa. The lamina cribrosa is a porous collagen structure through which the axons pass on their path from the retina to the(More)
PURPOSE To delineate three-dimensionally the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lamina cribrosa, scleral flange, and peripapillary sclera, to determine the position and thickness of these structures within digital three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of the monkey optic nerve head (ONH). METHODS The trephinated ONH and peripapillary sclera from(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the biomechanical response to IOP elevation of normal monkey eyes using eye-specific, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) models of the ONH that incorporate lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitectural information. METHODS A serial sectioning and episcopic imaging technique was used to reconstruct the ONH and peripapillary sclera(More)
PURPOSE To introduce a three-dimensional (3-D) histomorphometric strategy for characterizing the connective tissue (laminar) and prelaminar neural tissue (prelaminar) components of optic nerve head (ONH) cupping in one bilaterally normal monkey and three monkeys with early experimental glaucoma (EG) in one eye. METHODS Trephined ONH and peripapillary(More)
In this report we characterize the viscoelastic material properties of peripapillary sclera from the four quadrants surrounding the optic nerve head in both rabbit and monkey eyes. Scleral tensile specimens harvested from each quadrant were subjected to uniaxial stress relaxation and tensile ramp to failure tests. Linear viscoelastic theory, coupled with a(More)
PURPOSE To delineate three dimensionally the neural canal landmarks-Bruch's membrane opening (BMO), anterior sclera canal opening (ASCO), anterior laminar insertion (ALI), posterior laminar insertion (PLI), and posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO)-and the anterior-most aspect of the subarachnoid space (ASAS), within digital three-dimensional (3-D)(More)
PURPOSE To characterize scleral biomechanics in both eyes of eight monkeys in which chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was induced in one eye. METHODS Each posterior sclera was mounted on a pressurization apparatus, IOP was elevated from 5 to 45 mm Hg while the 3D displacements of the scleral surface were measured by speckle interferometry.(More)
This nontechnical review is focused upon educating the reader on optic nerve head biomechanics in both aging and disease along two main themes: what is known about how mechanical forces and the resulting deformations are distributed in the posterior pole and ONH (biomechanics) and what is known about how the living system responds to those deformations(More)
PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that pathophysiologic deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall underlies the onset of confocal scanning laser tomography (CSLT)-detected optic nerve head (ONH) surface change in early experimental glaucoma. METHODS Both eyes of four normal (two normal eyes) monkeys and four with early glaucoma (one(More)