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We propose here a conceptual framework for understanding the optic nerve head (ONH) as a biomechanical structure. Basic principles of biomechanical engineering are used to propose a central role for intraocular pressure (IOP)-related stress and strain in the physiology of ONH aging and the pathophysiology of glaucomatous damage. Our paradigm suggests that(More)
PURPOSE To delineate three-dimensionally the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lamina cribrosa, scleral flange, and peripapillary sclera, to determine the position and thickness of these structures within digital three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of the monkey optic nerve head (ONH). METHODS The trephinated ONH and peripapillary sclera from(More)
PURPOSE To delineate three dimensionally the neural canal landmarks-Bruch's membrane opening (BMO), anterior sclera canal opening (ASCO), anterior laminar insertion (ALI), posterior laminar insertion (PLI), and posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO)-and the anterior-most aspect of the subarachnoid space (ASAS), within digital three-dimensional (3-D)(More)
PURPOSE To introduce a three-dimensional (3-D) histomorphometric strategy for characterizing the connective tissue (laminar) and prelaminar neural tissue (prelaminar) components of optic nerve head (ONH) cupping in one bilaterally normal monkey and three monkeys with early experimental glaucoma (EG) in one eye. METHODS Trephined ONH and peripapillary(More)
The posterior sclera likely plays an important role in the development of glaucoma, and accurate characterization of its mechanical properties is needed to understand its impact on the more delicate optic nerve head--the primary site of damage in the disease. The posterior scleral shells from both eyes of one rhesus monkey were individually mounted on a(More)
The sclera is the white outer shell and principal load-bearing tissue of the eye as it sustains the intraocular pressure. We have hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the posterior sclera play a significant role in and are altered by the development of glaucoma-an ocular disease manifested by structural damage to the optic nerve head. An(More)
PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that pathophysiologic deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall underlies the onset of confocal scanning laser tomography (CSLT)-detected optic nerve head (ONH) surface change in early experimental glaucoma. METHODS Both eyes of four normal (two normal eyes) monkeys and four with early glaucoma (one(More)
PURPOSE To characterize optic nerve head (ONH) connective tissue deformation after acute (15 or 30 minutes) intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in six adult normal monkeys using three-dimensional (3-D) histomorphometry. METHODS Trephined ONH and peripapillary sclera from both eyes of six monkeys, each perfusion fixed with one eye at IOP 10 mm Hg (IOP-10)(More)
PURPOSE To characterize scleral biomechanics in both eyes of eight monkeys in which chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was induced in one eye. METHODS Each posterior sclera was mounted on a pressurization apparatus, IOP was elevated from 5 to 45 mm Hg while the 3D displacements of the scleral surface were measured by speckle interferometry.(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the age-related differences in the inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear biomechanical properties of posterior sclera from old (22.9 +/- 5.3 years) and young (1.5 +/- 0.7 years) rhesus monkeys. METHODS The posterior scleral shell of each eye was mounted on a custom-built pressurization apparatus, then intraocular pressure (IOP) was(More)