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Exposure to urban airborne particles is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality. There is little experimental evidence of the mechanisms involved and the role of particle composition. We assessed cytotoxicity (crystal violet assay), apoptosis [terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) or annexin V assay],(More)
BACKGROUND The proportion of recurrent tuberculosis cases attributable to relapse or reinfection and the risk factors associated with these different mechanisms are poorly understood. We followed up a cohort of 326 South African mineworkers, who had successfully completed treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis in 1995, to determine the rate and mechanisms of(More)
BACKGROUND Gold miners have very high rates of tuberculosis. The contribution of infections imported into mining communities versus transmission within them is not known and has implications for control strategies. METHODS We did a prospective, population-based molecular and conventional epidemiological study of pulmonary tuberculosis in a group of(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with the inherited disorder ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) have an increased susceptibility to lymphoid malignancies. In these patients mutations affect both alleles of the A-T gene (ATM). We have looked for mutations in the ATM gene in sporadic cases of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). METHODS 32 cases of B-CLL were analysed(More)
A cohort of 1792 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and 2970 HIV-negative South African miners was observed for 12 months starting in February 1998. All-cause hospitalizations and deaths were significantly associated with HIV infection (respective unadjusted incidence rate ratios, 2.9 and 9.2; respective 95% confidence intervals, 2.5-3.4 and(More)
Manganese (Mn) is a common neurotoxicant associated with a clinical syndrome that includes signs and symptoms referable to the basal ganglia. Despite many advances in understanding the pathophysiology of Mn neurotoxicity in humans, with molecular and structural imaging techniques, only a few case reports describe the associated pathological findings, and(More)
BACKGROUND Eliminating silicosis is a priority of the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization. Prevalence is particularly high in developing countries. OBJECTIVES We describe trends in silicosis among South African gold miners who had had an autopsy between 1975 and 2007 and quantify the contributions of age at autopsy and(More)
Manganese (Mn) is a common occupational exposure worldwide. Recent studies indicate clinical and imaging evidence of neurotoxicity in chronically exposed workers. The pathologic significance of these findings is unclear. South Africa produces over 80% of the world's Mn from mines from a desert region in the Northern Cape Province. An autopsy program at the(More)
Commentary This series provides an important opportunity to consider how diagnostic pathology autopsy could be used in conjunction with verbal autopsy to provide more accurate cause of death and mortality data in all countries, and specifically in those countries with inadequate or nonexistent death registrations systems. For the purposes of this(More)
BACKGROUND Traditional tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcome measures, such as cure rate, do not provide insight into the underlying reasons for missing clinical targets. We evaluated a TB Process-Based Performance Review (TB-PBPR) tool, developed to identify "missed opportunities" for timely and accurate diagnosis of TB. The tool enables performance(More)