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Many recently discovered noncoding RNAs do not fold into a single native conformation but sample many different conformations along their free-energy landscape to carry out their biological function. Here we review solution-state NMR techniques that measure the structural, kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of RNA motions spanning picosecond to(More)
Changes to the conformation of coding and non-coding RNAs form the basis of elements of genetic regulation and provide an important source of complexity, which drives many of the fundamental processes of life. Although the structure of RNA is highly flexible, the underlying dynamics of RNA are robust and are limited to transitions between the few(More)
The visualization of RNA conformational changes has provided fundamental insights into how regulatory RNAs carry out their biological functions. The RNA structural transitions that have been characterized so far involve long-lived species that can be captured by structure characterization techniques. Here we report the nuclear magnetic resonance(More)
The nature and variety in the denatured state of a protein, a non-native state under a given set of conditions, has been a subject of intense debate. Here, using multidimensional NMR, we have characterized the 6 M Gdn-HCl-denatured state of GED, the assembly domain of dynamin. Even under such strongly denaturing conditions, we detected the presence of(More)
A key effector route of the Sugar Code involves lectins that exert crucial regulatory controls by targeting distinct cellular glycans. We demonstrate that a single amino-acid substitution in a banana lectin, replacing histidine 84 with a threonine, significantly reduces its mitogenicity, while preserving its broad-spectrum antiviral potency. X-ray(More)
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