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The adsorption of n-alkanethiols onto polycrystalline thin films of palladium containing a strong (111) texture produces well-organized, self-assembled monolayers. The organization of the alkane chains in the monolayer and the nature of the bonding between the palladium and the thiol were studied by contact angle measurements, optical ellipsometry,(More)
The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence, time course, frequency, and spectrum of acute and chronic complications arising from dual-chamber pacemaker implantation. This information may serve as a benchmark when comparing complication rates for dual-chamber pacemaker implantation with those for biventricular pacemaker implantation.
BACKGROUND Some current pacing systems can automatically detect and record atrial tachyarrhythmias that may be asymptomatic. We prospectively studied a 312-patient (pt) subgroup of MOST (MOde Selection Trial), a 2010-patient, 6-year randomized trial of DDDR versus VVIR pacing in sinus node dysfunction (SND). The purpose of the study was to correlate atrial(More)
Monoclonal antibodies that recognize specific antigens of interest are used as therapeutic agents and as tools for biomedical research. Discovering a single monoclonal antibody requires retrieval of an individual hybridoma from polyclonal mixtures of cells producing antibodies with a variety of specificities. The time required to isolate hybridomas by a(More)
Recent clinical trials showed that targeting of inhibitory receptors on T cells induces durable responses in a subset of cancer patients, despite advanced disease. However, the regulatory switches controlling T-cell function in immunosuppressive tumours are not well understood. Here we show that such inhibitory mechanisms can be systematically discovered in(More)
XBP-1, a transcription factor that drives the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated in B cells when they differentiate to plasma cells. Here, we show that in the B cells, whose capacity to secrete IgM has been eliminated, XBP-1 is induced normally on induction of differentiation, suggesting that activation of XBP-1 in B cells is a(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS The national immunisation records of over 220,000 girls offered vaccine in the routine or catch-up programme of the Human papillomavirus (HPV) programme in Scotland were analysed. Descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling were used to determine individual and organisational factors associated with uptake. Age, school year,(More)
Myelin-reactive T cells have been identified in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy subjects with comparable frequencies, but the contribution of these autoreactive T cells to disease pathology remains unknown. A total of 13,324 T cell libraries generated from blood of 23 patients and 22 healthy controls were interrogated for reactivity to(More)
The release of cytokines by T cells defines a significant part of their functional activity in vivo, and their ability to produce multiple cytokines has been associated with beneficial immune responses. To date, time-integrated end-point measurements have obscured whether these polyfunctional states arise from the simultaneous or successive release of(More)