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Zooxanthellae, endosymbiotic algae of reef-building corals, substantially contribute to the high gross primary production of coral reefs, but corals exude up to half of the carbon assimilated by their zooxanthellae as mucus. Here we show that released coral mucus efficiently traps organic matter from the water column and rapidly carries energy and nutrients(More)
Many distance learning systems claim to be interactive, but few can offer two-way video, on-the-fly interaction, and application sharing. The authors describe the Interactive Remote Instruction system, which links sites over a high-speed intranet. Distance learning — education without a central classroom — has helped busy people obtain college credits or(More)
Tropical coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse ecosystems, despite being surrounded by ocean waters where nutrients are in short supply. Benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is a significant internal source of "new" nitrogen (N) in reef ecosystems, but related information appears to be sparse. Here, we review the current state (and gaps) of(More)
This paper discusses the software architecture, inter-process communication and the reference implementation of IRI, an Interactive Remote Instruction system for distance learning. IRI is an Internet-based system which integrates continuous multimedia, shared applications and a variety of multiuser collaborative utilities. Internet multicasting is used by(More)
Permeable sediments and associated microbial communities play a fundamental role in nutrient recycling within coral reef ecosystems by ensuring high levels of primary production in oligotrophic environments. A previous study on organic matter degradation within biogenic carbonate and terrigenous silicate reef sands in the Red Sea suggested that observed(More)
Coral reefs of the Central Red Sea display a high degree of endemism, and are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic effects due to intense local coastal development measures. Overfishing and eutrophication are among the most significant local pressures on these reefs, but there is no information available about their potential effects on the associated(More)
We used our Original Interactive Remote Instruction (IRI) system to teach scores of university classes over the past years at sites up to 300 km apart. While this system is a prototype, its use in real classes allows us to deal with crucial issues in distributed education instruction systems. We describe our motivation and vision for a reimplementation of(More)