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The massive visual input from the eye to the brain requires selective processing of some visual information at the expense of other information, a process referred to as visual attention. Increases in the responses of visual neurons with attention have been extensively studied along the visual processing streams in monkey cerebral cortex, from primary(More)
The premotor theory of visual spatial attention proposes that the same brain activity that prepares for saccades to one part of the visual field also facilitates visual processing at that same region of the visual field. Strong support comes from improvements in performance by electrical stimulation of presaccadic areas, including the frontal eye field and(More)
Change blindness is the failure to see large changes in a visual scene that occur simultaneously with a global visual transient. Such visual transients might be brief blanks between visual scenes or the blurs caused by rapid or saccadic eye movements between successive fixations. Shifting attention to the site of the change counters this "blindness" by(More)
Active vision requires the integration of information coming from the retina with that generated internally within the brain, especially by saccadic eye movements. Just as visual information reaches cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, this internal information reaches the cerebral cortex through other higher-order nuclei of the(More)
A critical technique for understanding how neuronal activity contributes to behavior is determining whether perturbing it changes behavior. The advent of optogenetic techniques allows the immediately reversible alteration of neuronal activity in contrast to chemical approaches lasting minutes to hours. Modification of behavior using optogenetics has had(More)
BACKGROUND Initial studies of sentinel lymphadenectomy for patients with breast carcinoma confirmed that the status of the sentinel lymph nodes was an accurate predictor of the presence of metastatic disease in the axillary lymph nodes. Sentinel lymphadenectomy, as an axillary staging procedure, has risks of morbidity that have yet to be defined. METHODS(More)
The major pathway for visual information reaching cerebral cortex is through the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus. Acting on this vital relay is another thalamic nucleus, the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). This nucleus receives topographically organized collaterals from both thalamus and cortex and sends similarly organized projections(More)
A critical step in determining how a neuron contributes to visual processing is determining its visual receptive field (RF). While recording from neurons in frontal eye field (FEF) of awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta), we probed the visual field with small spots of light and found excitatory RFs that decreased in strength from RF center to periphery. However,(More)
Despite saccades changing the image on the retina several times per second, we still perceive a stable visual world. A possible mechanism underlying this stability is that an internal retinotopic map is updated with each saccade, with the location of objects being compared before and after the saccade. Psychophysical experiments have shown that humans(More)
BACKGROUND Angiotensin peptides may act locally as cytokines in several organ systems with elevated mucosal levels present in Crohn's disease. A variant in the angiotensinogen gene promoter results in increased peptide production, while transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) codon 25 variants demonstrate variable peptide production, predisposing to(More)