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A drinking water distribution system (DWDS) is the final and essential step to supply safe and high-quality drinking water to customers. Biological processes, such as biofilm formation and detachment, microbial growth in bulk water, and the formation of loose deposits, may occur. These processes will lead to deterioration of the water quality during(More)
The Netherlands is one of the few countries where chlorine is not used at all, neither for primary disinfection nor to maintain a residual disinfectant in the distribution network. The Dutch approach that allows production and distribution of drinking water without the use of chlorine while not compromising microbial safety at the tap, can be summarized as(More)
The Wadden Sea is one of the largest intertidal areas in the world and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its unique natural features. Major changes in the morphology and ecology of the Wadden Sea over the past millennium resulted from increasing anthropogenic influences such as coastal protection, land claim from the sea(More)
the Welsh Assembly Government. The support of the funders is acknowledged. The views expressed are those of the authors and do not represent the views of the funders. provided helpful comments on previous versions of the paper. Any remaining errors and omissions are mine. Abstract Using parks as an example, this paper explores the robustness and sources of(More)
The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the policies of Statistics Netherlands 1) Explanation of symbols. = data not available * = provisional figure x = publication prohibited (confidential figure) – = nil or less than half of unit concerned – = (between two figures) inclusive 0 (0,0) = less than half of(More)
Suriname. Currently aggressive water is treated in Suriname by means of shell filtration. Due to the multi purpose use of shells among which water treatment and soap production, the shells provision is threatened to run out in the long term. Therefore in time the shells will need to be replaced by an alternative conditioning material. Currently at pumping(More)
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