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We estimate and compare two empirical measures of the weak sustainability of an economy for the first time: the change in augmented Green Net National Product (GNNP), and the interest on augmented Genuine Savings (GS). Yearly calculations are given for each measure for Scotland during 1992–1999. Augmentation means including, using projections to 2020,(More)
We model the effect of a no-take reserve in a marine fishery management area, such as on a coral reef. Implicitly, eggs and larvae are mobile but adults are not; and there is open access fishing outside the reserve. A reserve is found to increase equilibrium catch if the prior ratio of stock to carrying capacity is less than a half, and the catch-maximising(More)
In debates about green accounting it is sometimes argued that a positive value of aggregate investments indicates that an economy is developing sustainably. Asheim (1994) and Pezzey (1994) have shown that this is wrong, using a version of the well-known Dasgupta–Heal economy (with one capital and one non-renewable resource stock) as a counterexample.(More)
We compare three different views on the long run efficiencies of emission taxes which include thresholds (inframarginal exemptions), and of tradeable emission permits where some permits are initially free. The differences are caused by different assumptions about whether thresholds and free permits should be subsidies given only to firms that produce, or(More)
We compare three different views on the long run efficiencies of emission taxes which include thresholds, and of tradable emission permits where some permits are initially free. The differences are caused by different assumptions about whether thresholds and free permits should be subsidies given only to firms that produce, or full property rights. Treating(More)
In an economy with multiple consumption goods (including environmental amenities) that uniquely maximizes the present value of utility with constant discounting, constant or falling augmented green net national product, or zero or negative augmented net investment, at any time implies that the economy is unsustainable then. "Augmented" means that time is(More)
This paper discusses results concerning multivariate normal distributions that are subject to truncation by a hyperplane and how such results can be applied to uncertainty analysis in the environmental sciences. We present a suite of results concerning truncated multi-variate normal distributions, some of which already appear in the mathematical literature.(More)
SUMMARY Economists assess dollar costs and benefits in the future by discounting them. Each cost or benefit is multiplied by a discount factor appropriate to the time when it occurs, and then total discounted costs are subtracted from total discounted benefits to get net present value. The rate by which the discount factor declines over time is the discount(More)