J. C. Stevenson

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Postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important public health problem in developed countries. Preventive treatment might effect a large reduction in the incidence, but this needs to be applied selectively to those women at increased risk. Loss of bone density results in an increased risk of fractures in the classical sites of vertebrae and proximal femur. A(More)
Sex hormone deficiency is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in women. We measured fasting serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations in a group of 542 healthy non-obese pre- and postmenopausal women (aged 18-70 years). Ageing was associated with increased concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)(More)
In the UK, over 250 000 patients take continuous oral glucocorticoids (GCs), yet no more than 14% receive any therapy to prevent bone loss, a major complication of GC treatment. Bone loss is rapid, particularly in the first year, and fracture risk may double. This review, based wherever possible on clinical evidence, aims to provide easy-to-use guidance(More)
The effect of spinal degenerative changes and aortic calcification on bone mineral density measurements was studied in 115 healthy early post-menopausal women. Lateral lumbar spine radiographs and quantitative computer tomography images were used to determine the presence and severity of aortic calcification and degenerative changes in the lumbar spine.(More)
The past decade has seen marked fluctuations in opinions concerning the merits and risks of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT). In July 2002, menopause management faced a major turning point when the first data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) trial were released. This study was categorized as a primary prevention trial for coronary(More)
The European Spine Phantom (ESP) has recently been developed as a universal standard for instruments measuring bone density. The ESP is composed of three semi-anthropomorphic hydroxyapatite vertebrae of varying densities surrounded by soft tissue equivalent plastic designed to resemble human bone and soft tissue when scanned on bone densitometers. In(More)
Although osteoporosis is generally regarded as a disease of women, up to 30% of hip fractures and 20% of vertebral fractures occur in men. Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in men include low body mass index, smoking, high alcohol consumption, corticosteroid therapy, physical inactivity, diseases that predispose to low bone mass, and conditions(More)
We investigated sex- and menopause-related differences in body composition and regional fat distribution, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in nonobese healthy volunteers. Men (n = 103) had a 50% greater lean tissue mass (P less than 0.001) but a 13% lower fat mass (P less than 0.001) than the women (n = 131). Postmenopausal (n = 70) women had a(More)
The burden of non-vertebral fractures is enormous. Hip fractures account for nearly 10% of all fractures (and a much greater proportion in the elderly), while wrist fractures may account for up to 23% of all limb fractures. The best available predictors of non-vertebral fracture risk are low BMD and a tendency to fall. Hip, forearm, proximal humerus and rib(More)
OBJECTIVES We attempted to assess insulin sensitivity in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and its relation to disease severity. BACKGROUND Peripheral muscular changes influence the progression of heart failure. This effect may be due to chronic disturbances of insulin and glucose metabolism that affect the energy status of skeletal and myocardial(More)