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We describe swarming in Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a third mode of surface translocation in addition to the previously described swimming and twitching motilities. Swarming in P. aeruginosa is induced on semisolid surfaces (0.5 to 0.7% agar) under conditions of nitrogen limitation and in response to certain amino acids. Glutamate, aspartate, histidine, or(More)
We investigated the regulation of the MexEF-OprN multidrug efflux system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is overexpressed in nfxC-type mutants and confers resistance to quinolones, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim. Sequencing of the DNA region upstream of the mexEF-oprN operon revealed the presence of an open reading frame (ORF) of 304 amino acids encoding(More)
Antibiotic-resistant mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were generated using chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin as selective agents. These mutants displayed a multidrug phenotype and overexpressed an outer membrane protein of 50 kDa, which was shown by Western blot analysis to correspond to OprN. A cosmid clone harbouring the oprN gene was isolated by partial(More)
While meropenem MICs were strongly influenced by the presence or absence of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump in both OprD-proficient and -deficient strain backgrounds, MICs of imipenem and of ER-35786 remained unchanged, demonstrating that meropenem is a substrate of MexAB-OprM but not imipenem and ER-35786. In vitro, all three carbapenems selected loss of OprD(More)
We report that 2 microg of azithromycin/ml inhibits the quorum-sensing circuitry of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1. Addition of synthetic autoinducers partially restored the expression of the trancriptional activator-encoding genes lasR and rhlR but not that of the autoinducer synthase-encoding gene lasI. We propose that azithromycin interferes with the(More)
During a 6-month period, 21 pairs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates susceptible (pretherapy) and resistant (posttherapy) to antipseudomonal beta-lactam antibiotics were isolated from hospitalized patients. In vivo emergence of beta-lactam resistance was associated with the overexpression of AmpC beta-lactamase in 10 patients. In the other 11 patients, the(More)
Mice lethally infected with the C56 strain of Toxoplasma gondii and treated with purified recombinant murine tumour necrosis factor (TNF, 1 microgram/day/mouse for 8 days), recombinant human interleukin-1 (IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta, 100 ng/day/mouse for 5 days) or a single dose of a combination of TNF (1 microgram/mouse) and IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta (100(More)
Resistance mechanisms selected after in vitro exposure to 12 quinolones were analyzed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Efflux-type mutants were predominant. Quinolones differed in their ability to select a particular efflux system. While the newer fluoroquinolones favored the MexCD-OprJ system, the older quinolones selected exclusively the MexEF-OprN or(More)
IL-2 secretion in response to mitogenic stimulation, assayed in vitro, is significantly reduced in circulating T lymphocytes isolated from healthy old people, but the significance of this abnormality and how it relates to in vivo IL-2 secretion remain unclear. We found that IL-2 secretion in response to PHA plus PMA by peripheral blood T cells isolated from(More)