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Stress is a biologically significant factor shown to influence synaptic plasticity and memory functioning in the hippocampus. This study examined the role of the amygdala, a brain structure implicated in coordinating stress behaviors and modulating memory consolidation, in mediating stress effects on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory in(More)
Mammalian cells respond to endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by activation of protein kinase cascades that lead to new gene expression. A protein kinase, p38, that was tyrosine phosphorylated in response to LPS, was cloned. The p38 enzyme and the product of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HOG1 gene, which are both members of the mitogen-activated protein(More)
Mammalian mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases include extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 subgroups. These MAP kinase isoforms are activated by dual phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine. Two human MAP kinase kinases (MKK3 and MKK4) were cloned that phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP(More)
Neural crest cells are multipotential stem cells that contribute extensively to vertebrate development and give rise to various cell and tissue types. Determination of the fate of mammalian neural crest has been inhibited by the lack of appropriate markers. Here, we make use of a two-component genetic system for indelibly marking the progeny of the cranial(More)
Protein kinases activated by dual phosphorylation on Tyr and Thr (MAP kinases) can be grouped into two major classes: ERK and JNK. The ERK group regulates multiple targets in response to growth factors via a Ras-dependent mechanism. In contrast, JNK activates the transcription factor c-Jun in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines and exposure of cells to(More)
The stress-activated p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase defines a subgroup of the mammalian MAP kinases that appear to play a key role in regulating inflammatory responses. Co-expression of constitutively active forms of Rac and Cdc42 leads to activation of p38 while dominant negative Rac and Cdc42 inhibit the ability of interleukin-1 to increase(More)
Nck, an adaptor protein composed of one SH2 and three SH3 domains, is a common target for a variety of cell surface receptors. We have identified a novel mammalian serine/threonine kinase that interacts with the SH3 domains of Nck, termed Nck Interacting Kinase (NIK). This kinase is most homologous to the Sterile 20 (Ste20) family of protein kinases. Of the(More)
Big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1), also known as ERK5, is a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase member whose biological role is largely undefined. We have shown previously that the activity of BMK1 in rat smooth muscle cells is up-regulated by oxidants. Here, we describe a constitutively active form of the MAP kinase kinase, MEK5(D), which selectively activates(More)
We have identified and cloned a novel serine/ threonine kinase, p38-regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK). PRAK is a 471 amino acid protein with 20-30% sequence identity to the known MAP kinase-regulated protein kinases RSK1/2/3, MNK1/2 and MAPKAP-K2/3. PRAK was found to be expressed in all human tissues and cell lines examined. In HeLa cells, PRAK was(More)
In humans, ten Toll-like receptor (TLR) paralogues sense molecular components of microbes, initiating the production of cytokine mediators that create the inflammatory response. Using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, we induced a germline mutation called Lps2, which abolishes cytokine responses to double-stranded RNA and severely impairs responses to the endotoxin(More)