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AIMS Westernized countries face a growing burden of cardiovascular calcification and osteoporosis. Despite its vast clinical significance, the precise nature of this reciprocal relationship remains obscure. We hypothesize that cardiovascular calcification progresses with inflammation and inversely correlates with bone tissue mineral density (TMD). METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVE The similarities between valvular and vascular lesions suggest pathological initiation mediated through endothelium, but the role of hemodynamics in valvular endothelial biology is poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS Monolayers of porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) or porcine aortic valve endothelial cells (PAVECs) were exposed to 20(More)
The aortic valve exhibits complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy and heterogeneity essential for the long-term efficient biomechanical function. These are, however, challenging to mimic in de novo engineered living tissue valve strategies. We present a novel simultaneous 3D printing/photocrosslinking technique for rapidly engineering complex, heterogeneous(More)
Animal models are critically important for a mechanistic understanding of embryonic morphogenesis. For decades, visualizing these rapid and complex multidimensional events has relied on projection images and thin section reconstructions. While much insight has been gained, fixed tissue specimens offer limited information on dynamic processes that are(More)
Heart valve disease is unique in that it affects both the very young and very old, and does not discriminate by financial affluence, social stratus, or global location. Research over the past decade has transformed our understanding of heart valve cell biology, yet still more remains unclear regarding how these cells respond and adapt to their local(More)
Mechanical forces are essential contributors to and unavoidable components of cardiac formation, both inducing and orchestrating local and global molecular and cellular changes. Experimental animal studies have contributed substantially to understanding the mechanobiology of heart development. More recent integration of high-resolution imaging modalities(More)
Embryonic heart valve primordia (cushions) maintain unidirectional blood flow during development despite an increasingly demanding mechanical environment. Recent studies demonstrate that atrioventricular (AV) cushions stiffen over gestation, but the molecular mechanisms of this process are unknown. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) and serotonin (5-HT)(More)
Hemodynamic forces play an important role in sculpting the embryonic heart and its valves. Alteration of blood flow patterns through the hearts of embryonic animal models lead to malformations that resemble some clinical congenital heart defects, but the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. Quantitative understanding of the local fluid forces acting in(More)
The aortic valve lies in a unique hemodynamic environment, one characterized by a range of stresses (shear stress, bending forces, loading forces and strain) that vary in intensity and direction throughout the cardiac cycle. Yet, despite its changing environment, the aortic valve opens and closes over 100,000 times a day and, in the majority of human(More)