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To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary(More)
The "French paradox" (apparent compatibility of a high fat diet with a low incidence of coronary atherosclerosis) has been attributed to the regular drinking of red wine. However, the alcohol content of wine may not be the sole explanation for this protection. Red wine also contains phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant properties of these may have an(More)
BACKGROUND The molecular events underlying mammary development during pregnancy, lactation, and involution are incompletely understood. RESULTS Mammary gland microarray data, cellular localization data, protein-protein interactions, and literature-mined genes were integrated and analyzed using statistics, principal component analysis, gene ontology(More)
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) is a common member of the infant intestinal microbiota, and it has been characterized by its foraging capacity for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). Its genome sequence revealed an overabundance of the Family 1 of solute binding proteins (F1SBPs), part of ABC transporters and associated with the import(More)
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease, frequently associated with hypertension and renal inflammation. ω-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish oil (FO) improve kidney function in animal models, but have inconsistent metabolic effects in humans. Oxylipin profiles in serum(More)
BACKGROUND The newly assembled Bos taurus genome sequence enables the linkage of bovine milk and lactation data with other mammalian genomes. RESULTS Using publicly available milk proteome data and mammary expressed sequence tags, 197 milk protein genes and over 6,000 mammary genes were identified in the bovine genome. Intersection of these genes with 238(More)
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play a key role in shaping and maintaining a healthy infant gut microbiota. This article demonstrates the potential of combining recent advances in glycomics and genomics to correlate abundances of fecal microbes and fecal HMOs. Serial fecal specimens from two healthy breast-fed infants were analyzed by bacterial DNA(More)
BACKGROUND This review provides a reappraisal of the potential effects of dairy foods, including dairy fats, on cardiovascular disease (CVD)/coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Commodities and foods containing saturated fats are of particular focus as current public dietary recommendations are directed toward reducing the intake of saturated fats as a means(More)
The objective of this study was to investigate membrane fatty acids for their effects on mitochondrial function in live cells. Mitochondrial potential and oxidant production were measured in human colonic adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells with membranes enhanced in either oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, or docosahexaenoic(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with inactive alleles of the fucosyltransferase 2 gene (FUT2; termed the 'secretor' gene) are common in many populations. Some members of the genus Bifidobacterium, common infant gut commensals, are known to consume 2'-fucosylated glycans found in the breast milk of secretor mothers. We investigated the effects of maternal secretor(More)