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To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary(More)
Epidemiologic studies from numerous disparate populations reveal that individuals with the habit of daily moderate wine consumption enjoy significant reductions in all-cause and particularly cardiovascular mortality when compared with individuals who abstain or who drink alcohol to excess. Researchers are working to explain this observation in molecular and(More)
BACKGROUND The consumption of monounsaturated trans fatty acids (TFAs) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Putative differences between the effects of TFAs from industrially produced and natural sources on CVD risk markers were not previously investigated in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE We aimed to compare the effects of TFAs from(More)
Successful therapy for chronic diseases must normalize a targeted aspect of metabolism without disrupting the regulation of other metabolic pathways essential for maintaining health. Use of a limited number of single molecule surrogates for disease, or biomarkers, to monitor the efficacy of a therapy may fail to predict undesirable side effects. In this(More)
Following birth, the breast-fed infant gastrointestinal tract is rapidly colonized by a microbial consortium often dominated by bifidobacteria. Accordingly, the complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC15697 reflects a competitive nutrient-utilization strategy targeting milk-borne molecules which lack a nutritive value to the(More)
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease, frequently associated with hypertension and renal inflammation. ω-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish oil (FO) improve kidney function in animal models, but have inconsistent metabolic effects in humans. Oxylipin profiles in serum(More)
Flavonoids are components of fruits, vegetables and wines. An abundance of flavonoids in the diet is correlated with reduced heart disease mortality, suggesting that they act as protective nutrients. However, little is known about the absorption and metabolism of flavonoids after normal foods are consumed. This study measured the levels of one abundant(More)
The "French paradox" (apparent compatibility of a high fat diet with a low incidence of coronary atherosclerosis) has been attributed to the regular drinking of red wine. However, the alcohol content of wine may not be the sole explanation for this protection. Red wine also contains phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant properties of these may have an(More)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant health problem and affects 70 million adults in the United States (30% of the adult population), and an estimated 20% of these individuals have the most severe form of NAFLD-nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The mechanisms underlying disease development and progression are awaiting clarification.(More)
Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing(More)