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To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary(More)
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease, frequently associated with hypertension and renal inflammation. ω-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish oil (FO) improve kidney function in animal models, but have inconsistent metabolic effects in humans. Oxylipin profiles in serum(More)
Following birth, the breast-fed infant gastrointestinal tract is rapidly colonized by a microbial consortium often dominated by bifidobacteria. Accordingly, the complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC15697 reflects a competitive nutrient-utilization strategy targeting milk-borne molecules which lack a nutritive value to the(More)
Human milk contains an unexpected abundance and diversity of complex oligosaccharides apparently indigestible by the developing infant and instead targeted to its cognate gastrointestinal microbiota. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based tools have provided a view of the oligosaccharide structures produced in milk across stages of lactation and among(More)
Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing(More)
Epidemiologic studies from numerous disparate populations reveal that individuals with the habit of daily moderate wine consumption enjoy significant reductions in all-cause and particularly cardiovascular mortality when compared with individuals who abstain or who drink alcohol to excess. Researchers are working to explain this observation in molecular and(More)
BACKGROUND The consumption of monounsaturated trans fatty acids (TFAs) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Putative differences between the effects of TFAs from industrially produced and natural sources on CVD risk markers were not previously investigated in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE We aimed to compare the effects of TFAs from(More)
BACKGROUND The newly assembled Bos taurus genome sequence enables the linkage of bovine milk and lactation data with other mammalian genomes. RESULTS Using publicly available milk proteome data and mammary expressed sequence tags, 197 milk protein genes and over 6,000 mammary genes were identified in the bovine genome. Intersection of these genes with 238(More)
The molecular basis by which human breast milk supports the development of a protective intestinal microbiome in infants is unknown. After lactose and lipids, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are quantitatively the third largest and most diverse component of breast milk. In this work, glycomic profiling of HMO consumption by bifidobacteria using Fourier(More)
Flavonoids are components of fruits, vegetables and wines. An abundance of flavonoids in the diet is correlated with reduced heart disease mortality, suggesting that they act as protective nutrients. However, little is known about the absorption and metabolism of flavonoids after normal foods are consumed. This study measured the levels of one abundant(More)