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Identification of the genes underlying complex phenotypes and the definition of the evolutionary forces that have shaped eukaryotic genomes are among the current challenges in molecular genetics. Variation in gene copy number is increasingly recognized as a source of inter-individual differences in genome sequence and has been proposed as a driving force(More)
Atherosclerosis is still an important disease. It accounts for 39% of deaths in the U.K. and 12 million U.S citizens have atherosclerosis-associated disease. Atherosclerosis may exert clinical effects by slow narrowing, producing stable angina or dramatic rupture, producing acute coronary syndromes such as unstable angina or myocardial infarction and death.(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) kills approximately 2 million people each year. MTb must drive host tissue destruction to disseminate and also to cause pulmonary cavitation. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, gelatinase B) is implicated in this Tb-related immunopathology. We demonstrate that conditioned media from MTb-infected monocytes (CoMTb), but not(More)
RATIONALE Pulmonary cavitation is fundamental to the global success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the mechanisms of this lung destruction are poorly understood. The biochemistry of lung matrix predicts matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) involvement in immunopathology. METHODS We investigated gene expression of all MMPs, proteins with a disintegrin(More)
AIMS Vascular injury leading to endothelial dysfunction is a characteristic feature of chronic renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and systemic inflammatory conditions, and predisposes to apoptosis and atherogenesis. Thus, endothelial dysfunction represents a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis prevention. The observation that activity of either(More)
OBJECTIVE The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) family regulates fundamental physiological processes including apoptosis and metabolism. Although JNK2 is known to promote foam cell formation during atherosclerosis, the potential role of JNK1 is uncertain. We examined the potential influence of JNK1 and its negative regulator, MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1),(More)
Intraplaque hemorrhage causes adaptive remodelling of macrophages towards a protective phenotype specialized towards handling iron and lipid overload, denoted Mhem. The Mhem phenotype expresses elevated levels of hemoglobin (Hb) scavenger receptor, CD163, capable of endocytosing pro-oxidant free Hb complexed to acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp). It is(More)
MOTIVATION Visual programming has the potential to allow non-programmers to redesign and rebuild applications to suit their individual needs. We have built such a visual programming environment, which allows non-programmers to interrogate and combine software components graphically to form new applications. As the needs of the biological community grow, so(More)