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In this paper, a mode matching technique for highly efficient coupling between dielectric silica waveguides (SWG) and planar photonic crystal (PPC) waveguides based on setting localized defects in a PPC tapered waveguide is reported. The introduction of multiple defects is designed properly depending on mode mismatching arising from the different widths of(More)
We demonstrate experimentally all-optical switching on a silicon chip at telecom wavelengths. The switching device comprises a compact ring resonator formed by horizontal silicon slot waveguides filled with highly nonlinear silicon nanocrystals in silica. When pumping at power levels about 100 mW using 10 ps pulses, more than 50% modulation depth is(More)
This study evaluates the feasibility of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-ToF MS) for the determination of the 15+1 EU PAHs in sediments. Experimental variables affecting the injection, chromatographic separation and analytical detection of the analytes have systematically been optimised.(More)
Coupled-cavity waveguides (CCWs) allow light propagation with strong field confinement in the cavities and small group velocity, which greatly enhances the efficiency of nonlinear effects. In addition, guided modes have zero dispersion at the central region of the transmission miniband. We show that CCWs created in planar photonic crystals, in which index(More)
We study cross-slot waveguides for polarization diversity schemes that simultaneously offer strong confinement in the slot region for both TE and TM polarizations. A symmetric configuration is initially presented to demonstrate that the same strong confinement and propagation constants can be obtained for both polarizations and slot thicknesses down to 50(More)
A novel all-optical switching structure based on a photonic crystal directional coupler is proposed and analyzed. Efficient optical switching is achieved by modifying the refractive index of the coupling region between the coupled waveguides by means of an optical control signal that is confined in the central region. Small length (around 1.1 mm) and low(More)
Resonant X ray scattering has been used to investigate charge localization on the octahedral iron atoms in magnetite below and above the Verwey temperature. We have measured the DAFS spectra of the 002 and 006 "forbidden" Bragg reflections permitted by the anisotropy of the iron anomalous scattering factor. We performed ab initio calculations which are in(More)
Resonant x-ray scattering was used to investigate electronic fluctuations of the octahedral iron atoms in magnetite. We measured the (002) and (006) "forbidden" x-ray diffraction reflections permitted by the anisotropy of the iron anomalous scattering factor. The energy and azimuthal angle dependencies of these reflections, and the polarization analysis,(More)
Local perturbations in complex oxides, such as domain walls, strain and defects, are of interest because they can modify the conduction or the dielectric and magnetic response, and can even promote phase transitions. Here, we show that the interaction between different types of local perturbations in oxide thin films is an additional source of(More)