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From Climate to Earth System Models Traditionally, climate is defined as the statistical collective of the weather conditions of a specified area during a specified interval of time, usually several decades. This definition is currently undergoing a change to place more emphasis on the exchange of energy, momentum and mass between the different compartments(More)
A climate model represents a multitude of processes on a variety of timescales and space scales: a canonical example of multi-physics multi-scale modeling. The underlying climate system is physically characterized by sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and natural stochastic variability, so very long integrations are needed to extract signals of(More)
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