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The movements of transmembrane segments (TMs) 3 and 6 at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane play an important role in the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. Here we provide evidence for the existence of an ionic lock that constrains the relative mobility of the cytoplasmic ends of TM3 and TM6 in the inactive state of the beta(2)-adrenergic(More)
The availability of a high-resolution structure of rhodopsin now allows us to reconsider research attempts to understand structure-function relationships in other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). A comparison of the rhodopsin structure with the results of previous sequence analysis and molecular modeling that incorporated experimental results(More)
The changes that lead to activation of G protein-coupled receptors have not been elucidated at the structural level. In this work we report the crystal structures of both ground state and a photoactivated deprotonated intermediate of bovine rhodopsin at a resolution of 4.15 A. In the photoactivated state, the Schiff base linking the chromophore and Lys-296(More)
Agonist binding to G protein-coupled receptors is believed to promote a conformational change that leads to the formation of the active receptor state. However, the character of this conformational change which provides the important link between agonist binding and G protein coupling is not known. Here we report evidence that agonist binding to the beta2(More)
Conserved features of the sequences of dopamine receptors and of homologous G-protein-coupled receptors point to regions, and amino acid residues within these regions, that contribute to their ligand binding sites. Differences in binding specificities among the catecholamine receptors, however, must stem from their nonconserved residues. Using the(More)
The binding site of the dopamine D2 receptor, like that of other homologous G-protein-coupled receptors, is contained within a water-accessible crevice formed among its seven membrane-spanning segments. Using the substituted-cysteine accessibility method, we previously mapped the residues that form the surface of the binding-site crevice in the third and(More)
An important determinant of the neurobehavioral responses induced by a drug is its relative receptor selectivity. The molecular basis of ligand selectivity of hallucinogenic and nonhallucinogenic compounds of varying structural classes for the human 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A and 5-HT2C receptors was investigated with the use of reciprocal site-directed(More)
Anatomical changes of exposed tree roots are valuable tools to date erosion events, but the responses of diverse species under different types of erosion need still to be studied in detail. In this paper we analyze the histologi-cal changes that occur in roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) subjected to continuous denudation. A descriptive and(More)
The goal of this study was to determine the ends and orientations of the seven transmembrane helices of the cannabinoid (CB1) receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). After initial sequence alignment, Fourier transform methods were used with the nPRIFT hydrophobicity scale and with a variability profile to calculate the alpha-helical periodicity (AP)(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) interact with an extraordinary diversity of ligands by means of their extracellular domains and/or the extracellular part of the transmembrane (TM) segments. Each receptor subfamily has developed specific sequence motifs to adjust the structural characteristics of its cognate ligands to a common set of conformational(More)