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Previous results have suggested that the Ras signaling pathway is involved in learning and memory. Ras is activated by nucleotide exchange factors, such as the calmodulin-activated guanine-nucleotide releasing factor 1 (Ras-GRF1). To test whether Ras-GRF1 is required for learning and memory, we inactivated the Ras-GRF1 gene in mice. These mutants performed(More)
Immediate early gene (IEG) expression is coordinated by multiple MAP kinase signaling pathways in a signal specific manner. Stress-activated p38α MAP kinase is implicated in transcriptional regulation of IEGs via MSK-mediated CREB phosphorylation. The protein kinases downstream to p38, MAPKAP kinase (MK) 2 and MK3 have been identified to regulate gene(More)
The ets-1 proto-oncogene codes for a transcription factor. In order to understand how ets-1 is regulated, we have cloned its promoter. We show that the promoter is inducible by serum and expression of c-Fos and c-Jun, and it is positively auto-regulated by its gene product. A 50 base-pair sequence is sufficient to confer c-Fos + c-Jun and c-Ets-1(More)
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