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In cultured Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, osmolarity increases (upshocks) rapidly elicited large membranous dilations that could be dislodged and pushed around inside the cell with a microprobe. Subsequent osmolarity decreases (downshocks) caused these vacuole-like dilations (VLDs) to disappear. Additional upshock/downshock perturbations resulted in repeated(More)
Activation of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in the spinal cord can diminish nociception. Humans and rodents show sex differences in the analgesia produced by KOR agonists, and female rats show fluctuations in KOR density and sensitivity across the estrous cycle. However, it is unclear whether there are sex differences in the amount and/or distribution of(More)
The circadian pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is likely to control the timing of the sleep-wake cycle in mammals by modulating the daily activity patterns of brain regions important in sleep and wakefulness. One such brain region is the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT). In both nocturnal rats and the diurnal rodent Arvicanthis(More)
Neurons are often regarded as fragile cells, easily destroyed by mechanical and osmotic insult. The results presented here demonstrate that this perception needs revision. Using extreme osmotic swelling, we show that molluscan neurons are astonishingly robust. In distilled water, a heterogeneous population of Lymnaea stagnalis CNS neurons swelled to several(More)
In the dentate gyrus, mu opioid receptors (MORs) and their enkephalin agonists have overlapping distributions and influence excitability and plasticity. Released endogenous enkephalins can activate at least some of these MORs; however, whether these interactions involve synaptically associated profiles or more distant associations and whether some(More)
  • Abby L. Duly, Jeffrey A. Harris, Ara M. Khatchadourian, Rozi T. Ulics, Melissa C. Wolter
  • 2007
Price changes in petroleum products are closely correlated among the three price programs of the Bureau of Labor Statistics; changes in the BLS petroleum-product CPI also correlate with changes in consumer spending on those products, as measured by the Consumer Expenditure Survey P olitical events in oil-producing countries, hurricanes in the Gulf of(More)
Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) were immunocytochemically localized at four different levels of the spinal cord of normally-cycling female rats in estrus or diestrus. KOR labeling was primarily observed in fine processes and a few neuronal cell bodies in the superficial dorsal horn and the dorsolateral funiculus. Quantitative light microscopic densitometry of(More)
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