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Chaperonins are multisubunit double-ring complexes that mediate the folding of nascent proteins [1] [2]. In bacteria, chaperonins are homo-oligomeric and are composed of seven-membered rings. Eukaryotic and most archaeal chaperonin rings are eight-membered and exhibit varying degrees of hetero-oligomerism [3] [4]. We have cloned and sequenced seven new(More)
A comprehensive understanding of the origin and spread of plastids remains an important yet elusive goal in the field of eukaryotic evolution. Combined with the discovery of new photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic protist lineages, the results of recent taxonomically broad phylogenomic studies suggest that a re-shuffling of higher-level eukaryote(More)
Nucleomorphs are residual nuclei derived from eukaryotic endosymbionts in chlorarachniophyte and cryptophyte algae. The endosymbionts that gave rise to nucleomorphs and plastids in these two algal groups were green and red algae, respectively. Despite their independent origin, the chlorarachniophyte and cryptophyte nucleomorph genomes share similar genomic(More)
Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to(More)
2006. The platypus in its place: nuclear genes and indels confirm the sister group relation of monotremes and therians. evidence for the last survivor of an ancient kangaroo lineage. of "hyopsodontids" to elephant shrews and a Holarctic origin of Afrotheria. Nature 434:497-501. The new classification of protists from the International Society of(More)
Nucleomorphs are the remnant nuclei of algal endosymbionts that took up residence inside a nonphotosynthetic eukaryotic host. The nucleomorphs of cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes are derived from red and green algal endosymbionts, respectively, and represent a stunning example of convergent evolution: their genomes have independently been reduced and(More)
BACKGROUND Euglenophytes are a group of photosynthetic flagellates possessing a plastid derived from a green algal endosymbiont, which was incorporated into an ancestral host cell via secondary endosymbiosis. However, the impact of endosymbiosis on the euglenophyte nuclear genome is not fully understood due to its complex nature as a 'hybrid' of a(More)
Cryptophytes are a diverse lineage of marine and freshwater, photosynthetic and secondarily nonphotosynthetic algae that acquired their plastids (chloroplasts) by "secondary" (i.e., eukaryote-eukaryote) endosymbiosis. Consequently, they are among the most genetically complex cells known and have four genomes: a mitochondrial, plastid, "master" nuclear, and(More)
Parasitic plants and their hosts have proven remarkably adept at exchanging fragments of mitochondrial DNA. Two recent studies provide important mechanistic insights into the pattern, process and consequences of horizontal gene transfer, demonstrating that genes can be transferred in large chunks and that gene conversion between foreign and native genes(More)