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This paper examines the evidence for a causal relationship between iron deficiency and a variety of functional consequences with economic implications (motor and mental impairment in children and low work productivity in adults). To the extent that we can be confident that iron deficiency does cause a consequence with economic implications, this effect is(More)
BACKGROUND Tubal ectopic pregnancy can be surgically treated by salpingectomy, in which the affected Fallopian tube is removed, or salpingotomy, in which the tube is preserved. Despite potentially increased risks of persistent trophoblast and repeat ectopic pregnancy, salpingotomy is often preferred over salpingectomy because the preservation of both tubes(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the value of maternal history and ultrasound scan findings at 6-10 weeks for predicting early miscarriage. METHODS Embryonic crown-rump length (CRL), heart rate (HR), gestational sac diameter (GSD) and yolk sac diameter (YSD) were compared in two groups of women with singleton pregnancies(More)
The option of expectant management was offered 221 women with ultrasound diagnosis of missed miscarriage. Eighty-five women (38%) accepted; the remaining 136 women chose surgical evacuation of retained products of conception. In the expectant management group 21 women (24.7%) had a complete miscarriage, 14 (16.5%) had incomplete miscarriage necessitating(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of non-surgical management of interstitial pregnancy. DESIGN A prospective interventional study. SUBJECTS Eleven women with the ultrasound diagnosis of interstitial ectopic pregnancy. METHODS Women with suspected early pregnancy complications were examined by transvaginal ultrasound. Those with the diagnosis of(More)
OBJECTIVES To construct normal ranges for embryonic crown-rump length (CRL), heart rate (HR), gestational sac diameter (GSD) and yolk sac diameter (YSD) at 6-10 weeks of gestation. METHODS We examined 4,698 singleton pregnancies with ultrasound measurements of CRL, HR, GSD and YSD at 6-10 weeks and CRL at 11-13 weeks resulting in the live birth after 36(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to predict the outcome of dichorionic (DC) twin pregnancies at 6-10 weeks' gestation from intertwin discordance in crown-rump length (CRL), heart rate (HR), and gestational sac diameter (GSD). STUDY DESIGN Intertwin discordance in CRL, HR, and GSD, was compared in 3 groups of DC twin pregnancies with 2 live embryos(More)
BACKGROUND Progesterone is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. However, whether progesterone supplementation in the first trimester of pregnancy would increase the rate of live births among women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages is uncertain. METHODS We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial(More)
BACKGROUND In 2004, The Australian Council for Safety and Quality in Health Care recognised that the lack of a comprehensive framework describing competencies for patient safety was a barrier to achieving a competent and safe health workforce. This article describes the building of a national patient safety education framework that describes the(More)
Within a framework of Primary Health Care (PHC) and Health Promotion (HP), the focus of this paper is on integrating traditional and modern health care in the remote area of Bashkharka, Nepal. The relevance to integrated health care of factors such as geography, ethnicity, religion, national infrastructure and international development agencies are(More)