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The aim of this paper is to explain critical features of the human primary generalized epilepsies by investigating the dynamical bifurcations of a nonlinear model of the brain's mean field dynamics. The model treats the cortex as a medium for the propagation of waves of electrical activity, incorporating key physiological processes such as propagation(More)
The agonist binding site of ATP-gated P2X receptors is distinct from other ATP-binding proteins. Mutagenesis on P2X(1) receptors of conserved residues in mammalian P2X receptors has established the paradigm that three lysine residues, as well as FT and NFR motifs, play an important role in mediating ATP action. In this study we have determined whether(More)
P2X receptors for extracellular ATP are a distinct family of ligand-gated cation channels involved in physiological processes ranging from synaptic transmission to muscle contraction. Common ATP binding motifs are absent from P2X receptors, and the extent of the agonist binding site is unclear. We used cysteine-scanning mutagenesis, radiolabeled 2-azido ATP(More)
At the majority of mutants in the region Glu181-Val200 incorporating a conserved AsnPheThrPhiPhixLys motif cysteine substitution had no effect on sensitivity to ATP, partial agonists, or methanethiosulfonate (MTS) compounds. For the F185C mutant the efficacy of partial agonists was reduced by approximately 90% but there was no effect on ATP potency or the(More)
The role of conserved polar glutamine, asparagine and threonine residues in the large extracellular loop, and glycosylation, to agonist action at human P2X1 receptors was tested by generating alanine substitution mutants. For the majority of mutants (Q56A, Q95A, T104A, T109A, Q112A, Q114A, T146A, N153A, T158A, N184A, N191A, N242A, N300A) alanine(More)
P2X receptors for ATP have a wide range of physiological roles and comprise a structurally distinct family of ligand-gated trimeric ion channels. The crystal structure of a P2X4 receptor, in combination with mutagenesis studies, has provided a model of the intersubunit ATP-binding sites and identified an extracellular lateral portal, adjacent to the(More)
Glycine residues can introduce flexibility in proteins, give rise to turns and breaks in secondary structure and are key components of some nucleotide binding motifs. In the P2X receptor extracellular ATP binding domain, 11 glycine residues are completely conserved and an additional five are conserved in at least five of the seven family members. We have(More)
The identification of alpha rhythm in the human electroencephalogram (EEG) is generally a laborious task involving visual inspection of the spectrum. Moreover the occurrence of multiple alpha rhythms is often overlooked. This paper seeks to automate the process of identifying alpha peaks and quantifying their frequency, amplitude and width as a function of(More)
P2X receptors for adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) are a distinct family of ligand-gated cation channels with two transmembrane domains, intracellular amino and carboxy termini and a large extracellular ligand binding loop. Seven genes (P2X(1-7)) have been cloned and the channels form as either homo or heterotrimeric channels giving rise to a wide range of(More)
P2X1 receptors are ATP-gated ion channels expressed by smooth muscle and blood cells. Carboxyl-terminally His-FLAG-tagged human P2X1 receptors were stably expressed in HEK293 cells and co-purified with cytoskeletal proteins including actin. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D inhibited P2X1 receptor currents with no effect on the time(More)