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Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a member of metabolite-sensing kinase family that plays important roles in responses of muscle cells to metabolic stress. AMPK is a heterotrimer of a catalytic alpha subunit (alpha1 or alpha2), and beta (beta1 or beta2) and gamma (gamma1 or gamma2) subunits. Because the brain has a high metabolic… (More)
An ileal segment was interposed between the renal collecting system and bladder in 4 cases. The surgical technique is outlined, with emphasis on the pyelo-infundibulocalico-ileal anastomosis and other technical aspects. The ileal ureter is recommended in selected cases of recurrent renal calculi and nephrocalcinosis with associated nephrolithiasis.