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Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent fibrotic factor responsible for the synthesis of extracellular matrix. TGF-beta1 acts through the TGF-beta type I and type II receptors to activate intracellular mediators, such as Smad proteins, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. We(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the chick a-actin gene reveals that the gene is comprised of 7 exons separated by six very short intervening sequences (IVS). The first IVS interrupts the 73 nucleotide 5' untranslated segment between nucleotides 61 and 62. The remaining IVS interrupt the translated region at codons 41/42, 150, 204, 267, and 327/328. The 272(More)
Eotaxin has been found to bind exclusively to a single chemokine receptor, CCR3. Using expression sequence tag screening of an activated monocyte library, a second chemokine has been identified; it was expressed and purified from a Drosophila cell culture system and appears to only activate CCR3. Eotaxin-2, MPIF-2, or CKbeta-6, is a human CC chemokine with(More)
The CD4 molecule is a T cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with high affinity with the envelope glycoprotein of the human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, thus serving as a cellular receptor for this virus. To define the sites on CD4 essential for binding to gp120, we produced several truncated, soluble derivatives of CD4 and a series of 26 substitution(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a critical role to restore the homeostasis of protein production in eukaryotic cells. This vital process is hence involved in many types of diseases including COPD. PERK, one branch in the ER stress signaling pathways, has been reported to activate NRF2 signaling pathway, a known protective response to COPD. Based on this(More)
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