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1. Comparisons were made in vitro at 25 degrees C among soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from young (2-3 months), adult (9-10 months), and aged (26-27 months) male mice. We tested the hypotheses that, compared with soleus and EDL muscles of young and adult mice, those from aged mice develop decreased maximum tetanic force (P0, mN) and(More)
To calculate the sample size for a research study it is important to take into account several aspects of the study design. In particular, one needs to take into account the hypotheses being tested, the study design, the sampling design, and the method to be used for the analysis. In this paper we propose a simple method to calculate sample size for(More)
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D (LGMD 2D) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ␣-sarcoglycan gene. To determine how ␣-sarcoglycan deficiency leads to muscle fiber de-generation, we generated and analyzed ␣-sarcoglycan– deficient mice. Sgca-null mice developed progressive muscular dystrophy and, in contrast to other animal(More)
Dystrophin is a multidomain protein that links the actin cytoskeleton to laminin in the extracellular matrix through the dystrophin associated protein (DAP) complex. The COOH-terminal domain of dystrophin binds to two components of the DAP complex, syntrophin and dystrobrevin. To understand the role of syntrophin and dystrobrevin, we previously generated a(More)
Ageing is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy, a deficit in force generation, an increased susceptibility to contraction-induced injury, and a permanent force deficit following severe injury. Muscles of young mice adapt rapidly following exercise by an increase in the production of heat shock proteins (HSPs), whereas muscles of old mice show a severely(More)
Our purpose was to determine the effect of temperature on the fatigability of isolated soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from rats during repeated isometric contractions. Muscles (70-90 mg) were studied at 20-40 degrees C in vitro. Fatigability was defined with respect to both the time and number of stimuli required to reach 50% of the(More)
1. Mdx mice were used as a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy; both lack dystrophin. It was hypothesized that the mdx condition would have a marked effect on the ability of diaphragm muscle from mdx mice to do active net work and generate power. This hypothesis was tested using the work-loop technique. 2. Specific twitch force, specific tetanic force and(More)
Many neuromuscular conditions are characterized by an exaggerated exercise-induced fatigue response that is disproportionate to activity level. This fatigue is not necessarily correlated with greater central or peripheral fatigue in patients, and some patients experience severe fatigue without any demonstrable somatic disease. Except in myopathies that are(More)
Maintenance of muscle mass and strength contributes to mobility which impacts on quality of life. Although muscle atrophy, declining strength, and physical frailty are generally accepted as inevitable concomitants of aging, the causes are unknown. Clarification of the mechanisms responsible for these changes would enhance our understanding of the degree to(More)
Denervated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles in rats rapidly lose mass and contractile force. After two months of denervation, mass and maximum tetanic force have fallen to 31% and 2% of the values of contralateral control muscles. Our purpose was to determine if grafting a long-term denervated muscle into an innervated site provides an effective(More)