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CGS 5649 B improves the learning performance of aged rats in a one-way active-avoidance situation. If, under reversed conditions, treated aged rats are also tested for passive avoidance, they show "place learning," which our findings have demonstrated to be typical of young rats. The effects of the substance are not confined to these experimental models nor(More)
Many theories of memory postulate that processing of information outlasts the learning situation and involves several different physiological substrates. If such physiologically distinct mechanisms or stages of memory do in fact exist, they should be differentially affected by particular experimental manipulations. Accordingly, a selective improvement of(More)
The contributions of B1 and B2 bradykinin receptors to acute and chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia were examined using the peptide B1 receptor antagonist des-Arg9[Leu8]bradykinin and transgenic Bk2r-/- mice. In normal rats and mice, des-Arg9[Leu8]bradykinin (30 nmol/kg i.v. or s.c.) inhibited carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and the late phase nociceptive(More)
The retention performance of mice in a passive-avoidance task was facilitated by low doses (0.3 mg/kg) of the competitive NMDA-receptor blocker CGP 37849, but impaired by high doses (30 mg/kg). The facilitatory effect was selectively suppressed by elevation of the plasma levels of aldosterone or corticosterone, or by blockade of steroid biosynthesis or the(More)
Bradykinin has been implicated in nociception and inflammation. To examine the relative significance of B1 and B2 bradykinin receptor subtypes in sympathetic and sensory ganglia, the electrophysiological effects of bradykinin analogues and the expression of receptor subtype mRNA were examined in wild-type and "B2 knockout" mice from which the B2 receptor(More)
MOTIVATION To make effective use of the vast amounts of expressed sequence tag (EST) sequence data generated by the Merck-sponsored EST project and other similar efforts, sequences must be organized into gene classes, and scientists must be able to 'mine' the gene class data in the context of related genomic data. RESULTS This paper presents the Merck(More)
Acute bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease in humans. Discussed as entry sites for pathogens into the brain are the blood-brain and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Although human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) constitute a well established human in vitro model for the blood-brain barrier, until now no reliable(More)
The memory-enhancing effects of a single treatment with the GABAB antagonist CGP 36,742 (10 mg/kg) or the nootropic agent oxiracetam (100 mg/kg) given immediately after a learning experience ('post-trial') remain detectable for at least 4 months thereafter. This indicates that in all probability these substances facilitate the formation of the long-term(More)
Bacterial invasion through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) during bacterial meningitis causes secretion of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines followed by the recruitment of leukocytes into the CNS. In this study, we analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) and monocyte transepithelial(More)
The 'nootropics' are a new class of psychoactive substances that improve learning and memory. Their almost exclusive effect on memory may indicate that they act on processes specifically involved in information storage. When administered after the learning trial, these substances improve subsequent retention performance in mice, even if an interval of 8 h(More)