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The vast majority of chloroplast proteins are synthesized in precursor form on cytosolic ribosomes. Chloroplast precursor proteins have cleavable, N-terminal targeting signals called transit peptides. Transit peptides direct precursor proteins to the chloroplast in an organelle-specific way. They can be phosphorylated by a cytosolic protein kinase, and this(More)
The chloroplastic inner envelope protein of 110 kD (IEP110) is part of the protein import machinery in the pea. Different hybrid proteins were constructed to assess the import and sorting pathway of IEP110. The IEP110 precursor (pIEP110) uses the general import pathway into chloroplasts, as shown by the mutual exchange of presequences with the precursor of(More)
Higher-plant chloroplast NAD(P)-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD(P)-GAPDH; EC is composed of two different nuclear-encoded subunits, GAPA and GAPB, forming the highly active heterotetrameric A2B2 enzyme. The main difference between these two subunits is a C-terminal extension of about 30 amino acid residues of GAPB. We present cDNA(More)
Pre-protein translocation into chloroplasts is accomplished by two distinct translocation machineries in the outer and inner envelope, respectively. We have isolated the translocon at the inner envelope membrane (Tic complex) by blue-native PAGE and describe a new Tic subunit, Tic62. Tic62, together with Tic110 and Tic55, forms a core translocation unit.(More)
Growing mitochondria acquire most of their proteins by the uptake of mitochondrial preproteins from the cytosol. To mediate this protein import, both mitochondrial membranes contain independent protein transport systems: the Tom machinery in the outer membrane and the Tim machinery in the inner membrane. Transport of proteins across the inner membrane and(More)
Precursor protein targeting toward organellar surfaces is assisted by different cytosolic chaperones. We demonstrate that the chloroplast protein translocon subunit Toc64 is the docking site for Hsp90 affiliated preproteins. Thereby, Hsp90 is recognised by the clamp type TPR domain of Toc64. The subsequent transfer of the preprotein from Toc64 to the major(More)
A subunit of the preprotein translocon of the outer envelope of chloroplasts (Toc complex) of 64 kD is described, Toc64. Toc64 copurifies on sucrose density gradients with the isolated Toc complex. Furthermore, it can be cross-linked in intact chloroplasts to a high molecular weight complex containing both Toc and Tic subunits and a precursor protein. The 0(More)
In chloroplasts, the transition metals iron and copper play an essential role in photosynthetic electron transport and act as cofactors for superoxide dismutases. Iron is essential for chlorophyll biosynthesis, and ferritin clusters in plastids store iron during germination, development, and iron stress. Thus, plastidic homeostasis of transition metals, in(More)
The 32 kDa chloroplast inner envelope protein (IEP32) is imported into the organelle in the absence of a cleavable N-terminal pre-sequence. The ten N-terminal amino acids form an essential portion of this targeting information as deduced from deletion mutants. Recognition and translocation of IEP32 is not catalysed by the general chloroplast outer envelope(More)
The translocation of proteins across cellular membranes is a key mechanistic problem for every cell. The preprotein translocon at the chloroplast outer envelope is responsible for precursor protein recognition and translocation across the outer envelope. We have reconstituted the translocation process into proteoliposomes from single subunits or by using(More)