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Canalicular secretion of bile salts is a vital function of the vertebrate liver, yet the molecular identity of the involved ATP-dependent carrier protein has not been elucidated. We cloned the full-length cDNA of the sister of P-glycoprotein (spgp; Mr approximately 160,000) of rat liver and demonstrated that it functions as an ATP-dependent bile salt(More)
A method is described to detect and measure the frequency of spontaneous tandem genetic duplications located throughout the Salmonella genome. The method is based on the ability of duplication-containing strains to inherit two selectable alleles of a single gene during generalized transductional crosses. One allele of the gene carries an insertion of the(More)
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transfer of N-linked oligosaccharides is immediately followed by trimming of ER-localized glycosidases. We analyzed the influence of specific oligosaccharide structures for degradation of misfolded carboxypeptidase Y (CPY). By studying the trimming reactions in vivo, we found that removal of the terminal alpha1,2 glucose and the(More)
Two major lysosomal membrane glycoproteins with apparent Mr approximately 120,000 were purified from chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. These glycoproteins are major sialoglycoproteins containing polylactosaminoglycan and represent approximately 0.1-0.2% of total cell proteins. A monoclonal antibody specific to one of the glycoproteins and polyclonal(More)
Protein O-phosphorylation often occurs reciprocally with O-GlcNAc modification and represents a regulatory principle for proteins. O-phosphorylation of serine by glycogen synthase kinase-3β on Snail1, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin and a key regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programme, results in its proteasomal(More)
Mutations in proteins that induce misfolding and proteasomal degradation are common causes of inherited diseases. Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A activity in lysosomes resulting in an accumulation of glycosphingolipid globotriosylceramide (Gb3). Some classical Fabry hemizygotes and all cardiac(More)
Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A) resulting in lysosomal accumulation of glycosphingolipid globotriosylceramide Gb3. Misfolded alpha-Gal A variants can have residual enzyme activity but are unstable. Their lysosomal trafficking is impaired because they are retained in the endoplasmic(More)
Immature and nonnative proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the quality control machinery. Folding-incompetent glycoproteins are eventually targeted for ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). EDEM1 (ER degradation-enhancing alpha-mannosidase-like protein 1), a putative mannose-binding protein, targets misfolded glycoproteins for(More)
Protein N-glycosylation and quality control of protein folding as well as the connected ER-associated degradation of misfolded glycoproteins (ERAD) are not only evolutionary highly conserved but also functionally linked. It is now established that particular N-glycan structures which result from processing reactions by exo-glycosidases in the ER are of(More)
Cargo selection and export from the endoplasmic reticulum occurs at specialized sites in cells. Export complexes consist of transitional elements of the endoplasmic reticulum and pre-Golgi intermediates. It is generally assumed that 60 to 80 nm initially COPII-coated vesicles derived from the transitional endoplasmic reticulum are the main carriers for(More)