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Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) comprise a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterised by progressive spasticity and hyperreflexia of the lower limbs. Autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia linked to the SPG3A locus on chromosome 14q11-21 accounts for approximately 10% of autosomal dominant(More)
Léri-Weill syndrome (LWS) or dyschondrosteosis represents a short stature syndrome characterised by the mesomelic shortening of the forearms and lower legs and by bilateral Madelung deformity of the wrists. Recently, mutations in the pseudoautosomal homeobox gene SHOX have been shown to be causative for this disorder. This gene has previously been described(More)
Four boys are described with partial gigantism of the hands and/or feet, pigmented nevi, hemihypertrophy, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors and macrocephaly, and/or other skull anomalies. Three of these patients showed an accelerated growth in their first years of life. Two suffered from cystiform pulmonary abnormalities. The children showed normal mental(More)
Two sisters with a complex clinical pattern, including microcephaly, microgenia, defects of skin pigmentation, anal stenosis/atresia, and combined immunodeficiency together with spontaneous chromosomal instability and cellular hypersensitivity to X-rays and bleomycin are described. Complementation studies on heterokaryons proved that the underlying genetic(More)
Four boys are described with partial gigantism of the hands and/or feet, pigmented nevi, hemihypertrophy, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors and macrocephaly, and/or other skull anomalies. Three of these patients showed an accelerated growth in their first years of life. Two suffered from cystiform pulmonary abnormalities. The children showed normal mental(More)
The human PAX3 gene contains a paired box and a paired-type homeobox, and is believed to play a role in pattern formation in the embryo. We describe the exon-intron structure of the homeobox-containing part of PAX3, complementing earlier descriptions of the 5' part of the gene. Mutations in PAX3 have been described in patients with Type 1 Waardenburg(More)
We have observed over 25 different mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulphate transporter gene (DTDST) in association with the recessive disorders achondrogenesis 1B, atelosteogenesis 2, and diastrophic dysplasia. The c862t (R279W) transition is the most common mutation in non-Finnish patients, but in these disorders it is usually combined with other(More)
Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, characterized by craniofacial and limb anomalies (GCPS; MIM 175700), previously has been demonstrated to be associated with translocations as well as point mutations affecting one allele of the zinc finger gene GLI3. In addition to GCPS, Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS; MIM 146510) and post-axial polydactyly type A (PAP-A;(More)
To define the range of phenotypic expression in Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS; Franceschetti-Klein syndrome), we performed mutation analysis in the TCOF1 gene in 46 patients with tentative diagnosis of TCS and evaluated the clinical data, including a scoring system. A total of 27 coding exons of TCOF1 and adjacent splice junctions were analysed by direct(More)
ABCD syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by albinism, black lock, cell migration disorder of the neurocytes of the gut (Hirschsprung disease [HSCR]), and deafness. This phenotype clearly overlaps with the features of the Shah-Waardenburg syndrome, comprising sensorineural deafness; hypopigmentation of skin, hair, and irides; and HSCR.(More)