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Chrysomeline larvae respond to disturbance and attack by everting dorsal glandular reservoirs, which release defensive secretions. The ancestral defense is based on the de novo synthesis of monoterpene iridoids. The catabolization of the host-plant O-glucoside salicin into salicylaldehyde is a character state that evolved later in two distinct lineages,(More)
Mobile business relies on complex, competing, if not incompatible, and sometimes unreliable technology. These aspects have therefore often dominated its research assessment. This paper, however, reports from a primarily business application oriented study of the field. A Delphi study, adapted for qualitative data and scenario building, was carried out(More)
Larvae of the Chrysomelina species Phaedon cochleariae and Gastrophysa viridula produce monoterpenoids (iridoids) to defend themselves against predatory attacks by presenting the toxins upon attack as droplets on the top of nine pairs of dorsal glands. Although the conversion of 8-hydroxygeraniol-8-O-beta-d-glucoside into the iridoids in the glandular(More)
Feeding larvae of Chrysomela lapponica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) acquire characteristic O-glucosides from the leaves of their food plants. The glucosides are selectively channeled from the gut to the defensive gland. Subsequent enzymatic transformations generate a blend of different defensive compounds, e.g., salicylaldehyde and two series of(More)
Samples for plant metabolic fingerprinting are prepared generally by metabolism quenching, grinding of plant material and extraction of metabolites in solvents. Further concentration and derivatisation steps follow in dependence of the sample nature and the available analytical platform. For plant material sampled in the field, several methods are not(More)
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